*WARNING* All of the ideas represented in this thread were formed by an INFP. They are not necessarily intended to inform others. They may not adhere to any sort of reality. They may also ignore prior rules or ideas. Agreement, positive reinforcement, critiquing, and justified reasoning are very welcomed.*WARNING*
Although I think that functional analysis inevitably cheapens the concept of human thought, I'm going to use them to conceptualize my observations. They make my life easier.
My Basic INFP Model
The primary goal for any INFP is to conciliate facts in order to form a unique self image. This self image is confided, but malleable.
Fi is used to represent the self-image and personal values. It acts as a catalyst for data(Si) to be sifted, analyzed, and compared (Ne) so that the INFP ideals maybe fully defined.
INFPs often act as re-conciliators and harmonizers within their social groups. This is because their self-image is often identified by their peers. Thus, they frequently feel compelled to agree with those around them and draw them together to form a cohesive environment.
INFPs are particularly adept at drawing past experiences (Si) from their memories and tying them together (Ne) with experiences of those around them. This is why they are often prized as confidants and looked upon as one of the most "loving" of all the Archetypes. However, their motivations for their behaviors are often stimulated by their personal needs for communal peace.
In fact, the best way to identify an INFP may very well be to simply disagree with them and observe their behavior. If this is done properly, they may often feel the need to expand upon their personal experience and knowledge to gain a common denominator with those who they converse with. However, if there are not mutual ideals being manifested between the INFP and their acquaintances, the INFP may withdraw, quickly change the subject, or become confused. If threatened, they may even lash out (Te) and criticize those around them. Of course, this is a rare occurrence because INFPs usually have an uncanny ability to communicate with warmth and integrity in one-on-one situations.
INFPs are exceptionally curious individuals. This, coupled with the fact that they are regularly considerate, often makes them prized students. However, INFPs often deviate from the common curriculum in order to find information about subjects that coincide with their personal ideals. These ideals may relate (Ne) to anything (Si) that the INFP identifies (Fi) with; whether it be the local flora and fauna, spaceships, Dinosaurs, or even MBTI. Because of this, INFP children may often have the tendency to daydream in the classroom if the current subject matter does not interest them. On a side note, I recommend that INFP students find some sort of personal relation with learning material. This may be hard to do, but it has it's benefits. INFPs need an organized, healthy, and even entertaining learning environment to promote their personal growth and awareness. They adore learning about human nature because it encourages their egos.
EDIT: INFP cognitive habits allow them to be one of the most linguistically fluent Archetypes. They are naturally inclined to clarify (Fi) concepts and symbols by delving into the past (Si) and relating it with the present. For instance, if an INFP does not know the definition of a certain word, such as "Proverbs", then he/she will dissect "Proverbs" in relation to the prior concepts of "Pro" and "Verbs". They can then form a personal definition for the word which often holds true to the objective definition.
Behavior in Social Structures :
As stated earlier, INFPs often act as peace-makers within their cliques and workplaces. Furthermore, they are often valued for original thoughts that extend from the status quo. They may even climb up social hierarchies with ease if they learn to use their creativity to gain an edge on their competitors. Unfortunately, if they feel that their identity is threatened by the rules and regulations of their work places, they tend to disassociate with their respective bureaucracies. Clever INFPs will even find loop-holes to bypass authority figures in an effort to create their own personal systems for working. This behavior can occasionally be beneficial because it subliminally catalyzes change within social networks. In fact, many INFP social critics and philosophers are still beloved today because of their insight and compassionate nature. You may find that INFPs, along with other Ne users, will change their type on these forums because they feel confined. However, they must learn that social boundaries are usually established to maintain order and serenity - not chaos and imprisonment.
EDIT:Problem Solving :
INFPs are apt at problem solving because they can focus on the past (Si) and project alternatives (Ne) for future scenarios. This gives them the ability to act as counselors and teachers. However, their style in doing so is much more indirect than their INFJ cousins because they lay out multiple paths for their clients to choose from. They may often feel the tendency to clarify what the problem is by breaking it down into a rational format, but they can become incredibly indecisive when actually taking personal action.
That's all I really have to offer from my own experiences. Most of this information probably isn't new to you, but it serves as a personal testament, which is important because I am an INFP.
Special Thanks to:
-The Sky is BLUE!