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  1. #1
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    Mar 2012
    5w6 sx/so

    Default Best of All Possible Worlds and Universal Enlightenment

    Among his many philosophical interests and concerns, Leibniz took on this question of theodicy: If God is omnibenevolent, omnipotent and omniscient, how do we account for the suffering and injustice that exist in the world? Historically, attempts to answer the question have been made using various arguments, for example, by explaining away evil or reconciling evil with good. For Leibniz, an additional central concern is the matter of reconciling human freedom (indeed, God's own freedom) with the determinism inherent in his own theory of the universe. Leibniz' solution casts God as a kind of "optimizer" of the collection of all original possibilities: Since He is good and omnipotent, and since He chose this world out of all possibilities, this world must be good—in fact, this world is the best of all possible worlds.
    Is 'the Force' in Star Wars real?
    Quote Originally Posted by superunknown View Post
    I believe there is an untapped feature of the universe so magnificent it has eluded all imagination prior.

    Do you like The Matrix?

    "We're not here because we're free; we're here because we're not free. There's no escaping reason, no denying purpose, for as we both know, without purpose we would not exist. It is purpose that created us, purpose that connects us, purpose that pulls us, that guides us, that drives us; it is purpose that defines us, purpose that binds us."
    Quote Originally Posted by Poimandres View Post
    @superunknown I believe our purpose might be in breaking beyond the matrix, and then creating a new matrix of the mind's design; ideally the matrix would be a program for the 'best of all possible worlds'. This is a very good question though, and I'm going to make it the prime topic of a new thread. We will have to experience the various places where all of the infinite possibilities could lead!

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    5w6 sx/so


    The evolution of life on Terra has a strong connection with those who own Terra: i.e. extraterrestrial supercivilizations that manipulates also the genetic evolution of man in Their own purposes. Anyway the destiny of the current man on Terra is near completion. He will be eliminated to make step for the next program with more homozigous standard of the DNA... basically with a DNA more simpler and more pure. The evolution of life is also included here. In my opinion THEY are responsible for the evolution of life in the last geological Era of the Earth (at least). Humans enter also in this game.

    God of the Universe?... We do not know who or what created the Universe. I'm uite sure that not God from the human religions (monotheist or polytheist). The religions are connected with some extremely advanced extraterrestrial supercivilizations that coexist now in this corner of the galaxy, but in the negative matter of the Universe.
    God of the Universe is not a person opinion like you and me. Above many other theories related with the genesis of the universe like quantum singularity or the membrane theory, I see another one: an extrauniversal supercivilization that is at a level of evolution impossible for us to understand and that exist in the Omniversal system. This is a level VI or VII in evolution after our classifications. But I personally don't see these extrauniversal supercivilizations like something similar to us. There must something incomprehensible for our level of understanding.

    If we examine a statistical yearbook of "world states" type, we find that each state is described by certain parameters and standard informations relating to: state location, area, capital, natural conditions of relief, climate, vegetation, fauna, head of state, population structure, cults, political parties, economy, agriculture, industry, trade, level of technical development, education, health, media, relations with other states. Do you think that you may find all these things about S.G.? Honestly, at a brief reading of the Bible, I never thought this is possible. Now, the Book of Books have gave me an almost full imagine of SG, worth to be introduced in the "World states", as a valuable filler, slightly different from what we know about other states.

    1. Location: A "corner" of the Milky Way Galaxy, which we know that it has about two hundred billion stars. Where? Somewhere close to us. Our stars of heaven seem to be grouped. People associate their position with the shapes of animals, objects, etc. and these constellations were baptized. Are they made it or the names and astrology was a gift from the gods like other gifts? I believe in the second assumption.

    Types of extraterrestrial civilizations after the technological level of evolution (classification made by some of the greatest astrophysicists of the last century starting with Carl Sagan).

    The late Carl Sagan once asked this question, "What does it mean for a civilization to be a million years old? We have had radio telescopes and spaceships for a few decades; our technical civilization is a few hundred years old... an advanced civilization millions of years old is as much beyond us as we are beyond a bush baby or a macaque."
    Although any conjecture about such advanced civilizations is almost a certainty today analizing the UFO phenomenon or the ancient sacred manuscripts, one can still use the laws of physics to place upper and lower limits on these civilizations. In particular, now that the laws of quantum field theory, general relativity, thermodynamics, etc. are fairly well-established, physics can impose broad physical bounds which constrain the parameters of these civilizations. Although it is impossible to predict the precise features of such advanced civilizations, their broad outlines can be analyzed using the laws of physics. No matter how many millions of years separate us from them, they still must obey the iron laws of physics, which are now advanced enough to explain everything from sub-atomic particles to the large-scale structure of the universe, through a staggering 43 orders of magnitude.

    Physics of Type I, II, and III Civilizations
    Specifically, we can rank civilizations by their energy consumption, using the following principles:

    1) The laws of thermodynamics. Even an advanced civilization is bound by the laws of thermodynamics, especially the Second Law, and can hence be ranked by the energy at their disposal.

    2) The laws of stable matter. Baryonic matter (e.g. based on protons and neutrons) tends to clump into three large groupings: planets, stars and galaxies. (This is a well-defined by product of stellar and galactic evolution, thermonuclear fusion, etc.) Thus, their energy will also be based on three distinct types, and this places upper limits on their rate of energy consumption.

    3) The laws of planetary evolution. Any advanced civilization must grow in energy consumption faster than the frequency of life-threatening catastrophes (e.g. meteor impacts, ice ages, supernovas, etc.). If they grow any slower, they are doomed to extinction. This places mathematical lower limits on the rate of growth of these civilizations.

    In a seminal paper published in 1964 in the Journal of Soviet Astronomy, Russian astrophysicist Nicolai Kardashev theorized that advanced civilizations must therefore be grouped according to three types: Type I, II, and III, which have mastered planetary, stellar and galactic forms of energy, respectively. He calculated that the energy consumption of these three types of civilization would be separated by a factor of many billions. But how long will it take for a civilization take to reach Type II and III status?
    Shorter than most realize.
    Berkeley astronomer Don Goldsmith reminds us that the earth receives about one billionth of the suns energy, and that humans utilize about one millionth of that. So we consume about one million billionth of the suns total energy. At present, our entire planetary energy production is about 10 billion billion ergs per second.
    For example, a Type I civilization is a truly planetary one, which has mastered most forms of planetary energy. Their energy output may be on the order of thousands to millions of times our current planetary output. Mark Twain once said, "Everyone complains about the weather, but no one does anything about it." This may change with a Type I civilization, which has enough energy to modify the weather. They also have enough energy to alter the course of earthquakes, volcanoes, and build cities on their oceans.
    Currently, our energy output qualifies humanity for Type 0 status.
    By definition, an advanced civilization must grow faster than the frequency of life-threatening catastrophes. Since large meteor and comet impacts take place once every few thousand years, a Type I civilization must master space travel to deflect space debris within that time frame, which should not be much of a problem. Ice ages may take place on a time scale of tens of thousands of years, so a Type I civilization must learn to modify the weather within that time frame.
    Artificial and internal catastrophes must also be negotiated. But the problem of global pollution is only a mortal threat for a Type 0 civilization; a Type I civilization has lived for several millennia as a planetary civilization, necessarily achieving ecological planetary balance. Internal problems like wars do pose a serious recurring threat.
    Eventually, after several thousand years, a Type I civilization will exhaust the power of a planet, and will derive their energy by consuming the entire output of their suns energy, or roughly a billion trillion trillion ergs per second.
    With their energy output comparable to that of a small star, they should be visible from space. Dyson has proposed that a Type II civilization may even build a gigantic sphere around their star to more efficiently utilize its total energy output. Even if they try to conceal their existence, they must, by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, emit waste heat. From outer space, their planet may glow like a Christmas tree ornament. Dyson has even proposed looking specifically for infrared emissions (rather than radio and TV) to identify these Type II civilizations.
    Perhaps the only serious threat to a Type II civilization would be a nearby supernova explosion, whose sudden eruption could scorch their planet in a withering blast of X-rays, killing all life forms. Thus, perhaps the most interesting civilization is a Type III civilization, for it is truly immortal. They have exhausted the power of a single star, and have reached for other star systems. No natural catastrophe known to science is capable of destroying a Type III civilization.
    Faced with a neighboring supernova, it would have several alternatives, such as altering and manipulating the evolution of dying red giant star which is about to explode. These civilizations do not inhabit planets anymore, but in giant space stations having the size of a planet having in this way total independence at galactic level. They can even manipulate large structures like solar systems and constellations.
    However, there are roadblocks to an emerging Type III civilization. Eventually, it bumps up against another iron law of physics, the theory of relativity. Dyson estimates that this may delay the transition to a Type III civilization by perhaps millions of years.
    But even with the light barrier, there are a number of ways of expanding at near-light velocities. For example, the ultimate measure of a rockets capability is measured by something called "specific impulse" (defined as the product of the thrust and the duration, measured in units of seconds). Chemical rockets can attain specific impulses of several hundred to several thousand seconds. Ion engines can attain specific impulses of tens of thousands of seconds. But to attain near-light speed velocity, one has to achieve specific impulse of about 30 million seconds, which is far beyond our current capability, but not that of a Type III civilization. A variety of propulsion systems would be available for light speed probes.
    Lastly, there is also the possibility that a Type II or Type III civilization might be able to reach the fabled Planck energy with their machines (10^19 billion electron volts). This energy is a quadrillion times larger than our most powerful atom smasher. This energy, as fantastic as it may seem, is (by definition) within the range of a Type II or III civilization.
    The Planck energy only occurs at the center of black holes and the instant of the Big Bang. But with recent advances in quantum gravity and superstring theory, there is renewed interest among physicists about energies so vast that quantum effects rip apart the fabric of space and time. Although it is not certain that quantum physics allows for stable wormholes, this raises the remote possibility that a sufficiently advanced civilizations may be able to move via holes in space, like Alice's Looking Glass. And if these civilizations can successfully navigate through stable wormholes, then attaining a specific impulse of a million seconds is no longer a problem. They merely take a short-cut through the galaxy. This would greatly cut down the transition between a Type II and Type III civilization.
    Second, the ability to tear holes in space and time may come in handy one day. Astronomers, analyzing light from distant supernovas, have concluded recently that the universe may be accelerating, rather than slowing down. If this is true, there may be an anti-gravity force (perhaps Einstein's cosmological constant) which is counteracting the gravitational attraction of distant galaxies. But this also means that the universe might expand forever in a Big Chill, until temperatures approach near-absolute zero. Several papers have recently laid out what such a dismal universe may look like. It will be a pitiful sight: any civilization which survives will be desperately huddled next to the dying embers of fading neutron stars and black holes. All intelligent life must die when the universe dies.
    Astronomer John Barrows of the University of Sussex writes, "Suppose that we extend the classification upwards. The members of the civilizations of Type IV, V, VI, ... and so on, would be able to manipulate the structures in the universe on larger and larger scales, encompassing groups of galaxies, clusters, and superclusters of galaxies." Civilizations beyond Type III may have enough energy to escape our dying universe via holes in space.
    Lastly, physicist Alan Guth of MIT, one of the originators of the inflationary universe theory, has even computed the energy necessary to create a baby universe in the laboratory (the temperature is 1,000 trillion degrees, which is within the range of these civilizations).

    Level I - alien civilizations using the energy of their own planet for their own needs
    Level II -- they use the whole energy of the entire solar system, the energy of a star (they are immortal, practicing with success genetic therapies)
    Level III - civilizations that use the energy of the whole galaxy (they can create and manage solar systems and constellations)
    Level IV -- the energy of the dark energy of the Universe (the negative matter).
    Level V, VI, VII - the universal energy (civilizations that can even create universes existing at a completely other level of evolution into the Omniverse system).

    After the informations received from the ancient manuscripts SG is somewhere at the level III or IV of technological development. As a comparison as I said our current civilization is type 0. Essentially such a supercivilization type III or IV is at a level of evolution unimaginable for us the human beings, having hundreds of millions of years in evolution and conscioussness. Let's listen the angels and what they have to say in this area:

    "Search The One who created Orion and the Pleiades... the Lord is His name!" (Amos 5-8)
    "He built Ursa Major, Ralita, Pleiades and the rooms of the stars from the south hemispheres." (Job 9-9)
    "31. Can you connect the buckles of Pleiades or the chains of Orion?
    32. Can you remove the crown of the Zodiac and can you be the helmsman of the Ursa Major and its stars?" (Job - 38)
    "... He is the Lord of Sirius." (LIII Sura of the Stars - 50)

    In their turn, the essenes, authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls, measured the times during the periods of 50 years, called Jubilee. A Jubilee year is repeated once at 50 years, during the time which Sirius B performs a complete rotation around Sirius A. Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians and Greeks, they also worshiped Sirius star, which is at 8.5 light-years from Earth. If we look at the map of the sky, we see that all the stars located relatively close to us, seen with the naked eye, are described as belonging to the gods, or SG: Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Ralita, Pleiades, Cassiopeia, Orion, Sirius and possibly other constellations with the names as old, baptized by the gods. It seems that the distant origin of SG is Sirius, but now in the present, if one can speak about a certain present, SG is not representative for Sirius or neither other neighboring star. Although S.G. has a vast galactic territory, which may be sized more like a sphere over a couple of hundreds of light years, the location of the "nucleus" of this civilization is impossible for us to know, because it has a variable position. It is not about an inhabited planet, but about a giant space station that travels into space and other dimensions of this Universe with impressive speed control. Although the galactic territory of S.G. has many other stations, some of them even the size of the "core", equipped with energetic resources that allow astral travels, SG has its headquarters in one gigantic super-technical station. S.G "territory" interfere in some areas with other civilizations. S.G. likes to hide the limits within the controlled galactic territory, I think, very large. Therefore, S.G. defines itself as the inhabitant of the central station.
    I can't help it. I want just like you to find out the truth, to find out our place in the configuration of the Universe, but remember:

    "... where there is much wisdom is much grief and he who increases his knowledge multiplies the suffering." (Ecclesiastes 1-18).
    or chapter 3 from Genesis

    It is in our nature to seek, to understand, to have the desire to know. Although is not a good thing. We are not allowed to develop science and technology. Look what happened with Atlantis, Hyperboreea or Lemurian civilizations. When we began to discover the truth about ourselves many feel the need to "take their world in their head". Others like me reach in the end at some conclusions similar with religion and stay in their in their own place.
    And by the way much of the techonolgy and knowledge that we have today is not actually ours.. is a long story.
    God from the Bible O.T., and all the other gods from our religions are a part of the same Existence (or Omniverse if you want)... like you and me. We are all part of the Existential game.

    Supercivilizations that coexist in this corner of the Milky Way Galaxy have a different way of perpetuation of Their specie. THEIR way of reproduction is to connect a somatic body (physical) produced in the laboratory, with a spiritual body genetically compatible, obtained by some standard genetic engineering programs, carried out on different planets of the galaxy, including Terra. The cycles of human development, located temporally between two catastrophic events -- produced by Them - such as the flood and the Revelation, are related with economic cycles of the production of spiritual bodies, which ensure the perpetuation and the genetic evolution of the humanoid extraterrestrial races. Terra works like a factory of finished products of such spiritual bodies. It is actually a cosmic laboratory where the spiritual bodies are produced. Humanity is a culture of souls for some supercivilizations much older than us at the scale of evolution of life in the Universe. We can compare these supercivilizations with the bees and the hive.
    - God is the queen (a superbeing who controls and organize the whole supercivilization), the hives are the gigantic space stations like beautiful heavenly Jerusalem (described also in the Bible, Qu'ran or the Book of Enock), and the bees are the angels.

    It is a decoding integrated technique, based on genetics and other modern sciences of the main ancient texts (Bible, Koran, Bhagavad-gita, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Tibetan Book of the Dead, the Indian Upanishads, and so forth and so on). In the second edition of this work, we offer you many other interesting informations that completes the overall picture of the Terra Programs of genetic engineering, extracted from technical data brought to date and especially from other ancient writings: Asiro-Babylonian, Phoenician, Hittite, Egyptian, Indian. The Book of Enoch, the myths of the people of Central America, of the Dacians, also bring new elements, solid, to support the theory of this document. This work, along with others that may be writen even at this very moment, will make possible to know much of the truth about us and about our place in this Universe.
    Always try to look at the beauty behind the grotesque. Everything is dual. You will surely find what you need.

    from where this Universe comes? from where the negative matter of the Universe comes?... I don't know. Nobody knows. We have only theories. One thing is quite sure for me. Not from God of the Bible. Read that chapter called the Supercivilization of God, or Yahweh if you like. This supercivilization coexist with other civilizations extremely advanced in this corner of the Milky Way Galaxy... perhaps in the negative matter of the Universe, or at a spiritual level if you like.
    ...and no, they didn't create this Universe.

    And in the end we tend to forget the fact that all our science today is based more or less only on theories, and the theories are changing from one decade to another.
    there are supercivilizations far more advanced than us who created us with a purpose: spiritual body. They do not inhabit planets now but gigantic space stations like Heavenly Jerusalem. I believe however that these space stations coexist more in a parallel world with ours, in the negative matter or I you like at a spiritual level. Read the whole book and after that you will have a clear picture of it. I have a contribution to that book because I put there a lot of additional information that complete the overall picture of: what is our place in the configuration of the Universe.
    you dream a lot. As a technical civilization we evolve because we are pushed from behind by others to do that. If we have right now so much technology and science that's because Somebody else had take care of that.. WE DO NOT EVOLVE BY OURSELVES. In conclusion all your dreams will be in vain because our civilization will be wiped out from the surface of Terra. We are just in a cycle controlled by Those who own Terra and the human civilization. Nothing is accidental.

    humans masters of the Universe? the Universe will follow our will?.... Is funny to see how the IW gives false hopes to people. You fall into the same trap like everybody else. Humanity will be destroyed. Martian civilization was destroyed. We are in the middle of some extremely advanced supercivilizations who own this corner of the Milky Way Galaxy, they created us, they control us, they will distroy us. Is simple. Read the ancient manuscripts and you will understand better our place in the Universe. We exist for Them. Humanity was always controlled by others. Since moment when the man spent his existence in a tree and until in the times when he stay on a chair with his eyes into a computer monitor, humans always has danced as Others has sang. The same thing happens with our evolution as a society, as a technical modern civilization. We are just in a game with a well defined purpose. To be controlled by others for Their own interests. So stop dreaming about how great we will be because: w.e. a.r.e. a b.i.g. n.o.b.o.d.y. i.n. t.h.i.s. U.n.i.v.e.r.s.e.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    5w6 sx/so


    There are more than 200 bn galaxies in the metagalaxy or the visible universe, each one with more than 100 bn stars, some of them even 1 trillion stars or more.. there are still people in this world who believe that life is only on our planet.. can you believe that? The Universe is full of life at all levels. First stars appeared in this universe 200 million years after the Big Bang, first galaxies organized immediately after that. As we could see the matter evolve very rapidly in this universe. If we go on this line the fist planets planets and solar systems appeared somewhere between 9-10 bn years ago and life somewhere between 7-9.5 bn years ago. The first extraterrestrial civilizations have developed somewhere between 1-5 billion years ago.
    If our universe is an atom into infinity called omniversal system, then there could be civilizations coming from other universes developing their races into other space time energetic level.. they are at a level of evolution impossible for us to understand. They are not at a level of ancient astronauts more or less like what we are in our days.

    Now the story goes like this (take it as a story, but always remember this story everywhere you go, because this is a possible truth about who we really are as individuals in this system called the Universe). The readers digest version:
    Once upon a time one of these supercivilizations -- who developed their races into this universe of probably into the omniversal system) came to Earth and to many other planets from this galaxy to develop life, or if they didn't develop life here at the beginning (3.5 bn years ago) at least they develop modern system of life from all the Cenozoic era, from 65 mln years ago until today. Is possible that the dinosaurs disappeared because of some supernatural causes, there was only alien intervention. By the way not too many people know how great the evolutionist and the creationist theory are melted into one... with paleoastronautic theories (there are traces of technology and civilization from 500 mil years ago). Who visit this planet from hundres of million of years?
    This alien supercivilization -- the elohims ruled by Yahuwah - create the modern man through the acceleration of evolution, the hominids, over 6 mln years ago and since then they accelerate the evolution of our specie making correction of our genes through genetic engineering programs. Adam and Eve from the Bible was one of these programs developed for the jews... the last one until today (Before Adam and Eve were other programs developed, there were even civilizations on this planet very evolved in technology -- the atlants - who dare to fight against gods and of course they were exterminated.. on Mars was a great civilization -- the martian civilization -- who was also destroyed completely because they were too evolved in technology... actually there was destroyed the whole ecosystem because of an apocalypse).

    Anyway it seems that at one moment this supercivilization has been split into pieces and many of the angels, fallen angels (starting with Lucifer at first who was an archon with other seven) were cast out from heavens and came to Earth and probably other planets to create their own vies about life, existence, programs of genetic engineering separated from Yahweh's program for the jews (that's why the jews are God's chosen people because they are the only race created by the real God Yahweh). So all the other races in this world (except the jews) are actually genetic engineering programs developed by those fallen angels/aliens from the mayans to the babylonians, cananites, egyptians, incas, Indians, all the Asians and so on. So those fallen angels starting with Lucifer, wanted also to became gods like their leader Yahweh, the real God (you know the story with lucifer that wanted to replace God and so on). Sounds like a pretty nice story I know (that's how I took it at the beginning), and sounds aberrant, until you began to dig out for details, to enter deeper and deeper into the phenomenon.. and the results are astonishing. This explains also why there are so many human races on this planet, every program and correspond to one of those fallen angels.
    There are two types of fallen angels:
    - the fallen archons with lucifer and the other seven, and also 1/3 of angels, of members from this extra-terrestrial civilization of were cast out from heaven hundreds of thousads of years ago
    - and the fallen watchers with Semyaza in front who were cast out who were cast out thousands of years ago in the times of Jared. (read the story in the Book of Enoch)

    Interesting thing is that all these ancient earthly civilizations developed technology, knowledge, mathematics, astronomy, astrology and so forth. (could be a similarity with the atlants?). The ancient manuscripts says very clear that all this knowledge came from the gods who created them.. fallen angels in this case.
    Also all those ancient civilizations have sacred books The Bible (Old Testament for the jews) and Rig Veda, Ramayana, The Egyptian book of death, Tibethan book of death, Bhagavad-gita, Upanishads, Popol Vuh, Puranas, Fenician, Hitite, Summeryan tables of clay, and so forth... all these sacred manuscripts were given by Yahweh (the Bible on one side, Old Testament) and by these fallen angels all the other books.
    Also all these books starting with the Bible (Old Testament) are actually a genetic engineering programs exposed in metaphors, personifications, parables and the most important law by far in all these sacred manuscripts was The Law of Non-Hibridation. Is very important to understand the human being first of all.. to understand how is this being --the human being - composed. We have three bodies the biological body (somatic body), the energetic body and the spiritual body. The energetic body makes the connection between the biological body and the spiritual body through the chakras.. every human being in this world has seven chakras positioned in different parts of the body, that look like some vertigos, and that keep maintained the connection between these two main bodies (biological and spiritual). Now there is a very strong connection between the DNA from our biological body and the DNA from our spiritual body. Is very important to keep this information in your mind.
    Yahweh and after that all these fallen angels (who became gods Osiris, ra, amon in Egyptian mythology, marduk the god in Babylonians, siva and Hinduism, quantzecoatl at the mayans, moloch at cananites, zeus and so forth) developed these programs for the human souls. They use human souls to perpetuate and multiply their species. Basically what lucifer wanted was to create his own view about life, his own civilization. The obsession of all these manuscripts was to keep the DNA pure, to keep the bloodline pure, so that the human soul DNA to be compatible with the their DNA, the DNA of these aliens. To maintain the purity of the race with an uncorrupted DNA. Like I said the first law in all those books (including Bible-Old Testament) was this law of non-hibridation -- or the deadliest of all sins. What does this mean?... It means that if I was a jew for example on Moses's time and I would have sex with an babylonian woman I would produce a hybrid because she was not on the same race like me. This hybrid would have the dna corrupted, with ramifications and remnants, impure, incompatible with Yahweh's civilization for example. The punishment for this sin was the second death... or the eternal death, the death of the soul into the lake of fire how the Bible describes so well. So that's why if I was a jew I should have sex with a woman from the same race like mine and no one else. That's how the new baby would have a pure DNA compatible with them. As I told we have also a spiritual DNA. Who's gonna read these ancient sacred manuscipts will understand better the programs.

    I heard a lot of people asking all the time why God-Yahweh promoted this view in the Old Testament that the jews have to kill in blood all the other races.. perpetuate this hatred on humans. The reason was simple: the Babylonians and all the other races around the jews were not his programs so logically they must be exterminated.
    Keep the bloodline clean and pure... the manuscripts are obsessed with this aspect. One of the reasons that the summerians had those channels of irrigation for example -- created by gods of course - was to delimit these different programs of gentics so that different races could not interact with each other. In our days only some casts from India still keep the tradition of the bloodline, some of the jews also and some very isolated tribes from amazonia, oceania and the papua. And of course the royal western families and illuminati. (read "The Illuminati bloodlines" by Springmeyer)

    In time these programs were abandoned and people began to mixed their races, to leave behind the most important of all those laws.. non-hibridation one.. to forget about the blood-line and so forth. Hybrids are not compatible with them so they have no future at universal level.
    By the way we are also hybrids if you didn't know that... so normally we would be on the waste shovel and after that obliterated from this universal system. Our souls are not compatable with the angels souls... at all... so we have a corrupted DNA, a corrupted soul.
    But there's an escape.
    All the ancient books starting with the Bible have these testaments given to the mortals, that are actually genetic engineering programs, everything masked of course in metaphors.. and at the apex of the testament there is this first and the most important law of all: the non-hybridation law. But the Bible has a second testament -- our salvation, us the ex-pagans, hybrids now but also christians -- the New Testament.
    The New Testament through Jesus Christ of course destroys completely the old law and brings back the new one that represents Christ as the only way to the real God Yahweh. Essentially the gospels were created for the people who belong to the programs of all these gods, fallen angels from elohims civilization; fallen angels who developed also like I said genetic programs on this planet.. actually all the other programs except the jew program. We are like I said hydrids now, we have a corrupted DNA, impure. So Jesus Christ came to Earth and has sacrifieced Himself to create Christianity for us. He is our saviour indeed... the only one who could purify our DNA.
    Everybody would ask, normally, why Jesus Christ died for our sins? Which sin?.. the sin of non-hybridation. We could say that Christ is the savior of the hybrids.. of us... or of the one of us who believe in Him. So the only way to salvation from from second death is through Jesus Christ. He is the only one who could purify our souls from the hybrided DNA.

    Pretty soon the end of the program will come.. the apocalypse... and it was not the first one... who will study the ancient manuscripts from Amerindians, incas, will understand better about what's going on... there were other at least four programs before us and we could be the last one on this planet because we are the most developed of all in technology and science. In the fourth program were the atlants who were also luciferians and very evolved in technology and science.
    On Mars was also a great civilization. And we could see the remnants of the programs of these supercivilizations even there. What Earth is now, Mars also was in the past, but what Mars is now the Earth also should be pretty soon.. sounds like madness I know... and is not too optimistic.. at all.

    The secret societies knows all these things, the archives of the Vatican knows all those things.. only the crowds are keept in ignorance about what's going on with ourselves.To expose the program in detail it would be too much for me here. This is just a very short story.
    Interesting story... at the beginning I thought that it was only a story until I began to dig out for more and more information and the results are astonishing about us, about what we are, about who we are, as what we represent in this universe as individuals, the universe which we perceive in such a limited way. I began to understand that the ancient manuscripts are not only some stories told and exposed by people with big imagination, but that those manuscripts are real.. the decodification of them is fantastic.

    Those civilizations are now at a level of evolution impossible for us to understand... they don't inhabit planets anymore, but other dimensions of this universe on a different level of frequency.. much higher.. according to some scientific theories there are 10 dimensions plus temporal dimension (11)... or how religions says the heavens. They are immortal, they could travel through other universes into this multiversal system.. they could even create universes. We don't know what is the level of their evolution.

    Is better to know all this story for the future... to understand that the very few people who rule this world.. the secret societies are not atheists but very very religious kids. They are luciferians and they know all these things. They know Yahweh and Christ and they know who They are. They try to keep people's perceptions on a very low level, with a very low level of conscience so we don't have to understand the essence of ourselves, of who we are., the essence of what we really represent in this universe. That's the new world order program started from decades even centuries in western society. We just have to stay with our heads underground and to catch only what they want.. like slaves.. easily manipulated.
    Basically there is a battle between two extra-terrestrial civilizations (one splitted from the other one) at another level, into other dimensions (probably galactic empires... we don't know). Now this world is rulled by the fallen angels through the luciferian secret societies, and we have to chose a side because the end of the fifth program will come pretty soon.

  4. #4
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    How many of them were indeed that smart? There are many things that you do not know about the evolution of mankind: technological, scientific evolution etc. The evolution of our society and of our techonological civilization is far more complex and has connections far deep than we can imagine. Tesla is more than suspect.

    Conducting the technico-scientific progress of Mankind
    I do not contest the merits of some scholars, scientists and I do not stain the memory of those who worked hard on the altar of science. Honor to them! But some of the greatest discoveries, those that would propel the technical progress of mankind are, I think, of I.T. origin. I will give some examples in this sense:
    Benjamin Franklin, mason, who discovered the electricity, was a notorious occultist. Much of the discoveries that he made were presumably due to occult practices. It seems that in the cellars of his mansion in England were found traces of human sacrifices, skeletons of tortured children and slaughtered, also there were sexual orgies that were a part of the tableware rituals. He is one of the founder members of United States by the way...
    English physicist Michael Faraday discovered the phenomenon of electromagnets induction. After a while, he received a letter signed "RM" the technical description of the generator of alternative current, "invention" that formed the basis of the human technical progress. Faraday has received many letters like this one signed by the same RM, which he made public at the time, and that contain technical details of the generator. However, the invention of major importance in the start of the development of scientific and technical revolution is assigned to the English physicist. The history of the letters containing scientific informations would repeat itself for several decades later.
    A more concrete example, we have categorically in the person of Nicola Tesla. Genius, I would say, even superiour to Einstein in importance to its contribution to the development of science, was born in Serbia on 10 June 1856. With a vitality that puts you on thoughts, Tesla had since he was a child what today we call extrasensory perceptions. Tesla "saw" images projected designed, engines, appliances, devices, technology in general. All his inventions were developed mentally, he viewed, sometimes not knowing where is the limit between palpable reality and the one mentally projected. He said that all his inventions were perfected, were corrected in a mental projection so real that never a device imagined by him has failed. Everything worked perfectly, without further corrections, it was built perfectly, without preliminary experiments. Nicola Tesla has developed an unusual capacity for astral projection, in other dimensions where he found numerous "friends". As he communicated with the ethereal beings (the angels IW), Tesla was introduced with the technique in etheric, technique that he had seen decomposed in detail, in operation. From the age of 30 years, the scholar has lived in the U.S. The great majority of the inventions revealed by him, of astral origin, IT origin, I say, was labeled as Top Secret and "confiscated" by the Americans. What brought into the world Nicola Tesla? The inventions that came through "channel Tesla" could pave the way for clean energy and this happens at the end of last century. In 1891 he imagined the coil that bear his name. It is actually a resonant transformer, a high frequency coil, which fed from the network or from the battery raise up to hundreds of thousands of volts making a real gain of power, whose secret is the resonance with the energies of the environment!?!? Tesla coil can be used for lighting, communications, in water disinfection etc Tesla patented many types of electrical devices that are not powered electrically by cable. High frequency generators imagined by Tesla light fluorescent tubes through waves of radio-frequency. He imagined generators with installed power of 10,000 W, which illuminates wireless, on a distance of 30 km! The energy flows in the air. Like the radio devices, entering in function regardless their number capturing the radio frequency, to the Tesla generator can be added how many consumers you want. "He intended to develop a global communication system and almost he finished building a spectacular transformer tower of nearly 60 meters high for the global communications system, that before his sponsor to stop sponsoring (incidentally you think? a.n) . Therefore, most of his inventions based on the phenomena from the area of high tensions and of those that generates the functioning of the Tesla coil, "had disappeared" from the official technology or were studied and applied in diluted forms. Among these are numbered: wireless power transmission , idiotransmitions and radio-receivers (including multiplex systems), therapeutic methods based on using high frequency currents, new systems of lighting and heating, trains and aircrafts with propulsion systems running on high-frequency currents. "
    These "inventions" occurred early in the scientific-technical revolution, could provide another picture of our world. The meaning and the scope of global development of mankind would have been different, if the scientific information shall not be confiscated. Why I.W. did not sent the scientific messages to others? They considered that their informations reached in the right place? I do not know ...
    Jack Parsons, also a renowned occultist, held satanic rituals from which he obtained informations from the angels of darkness (IW). These rituals were held near the Area 51. Magical rituals that were called "Babylonian ceremonies" designed by Aleister Crowley, another notorious satanist. The purpose of these magic ceremonies conducted there where is now the Area 51, was to unlock a interdimensional gateway that would allow the entities contacted to have access to our tridimensional space-time continuum. He was involved in many technological projects that have led to the develoment of the rocket propulsion systems and many other projects very "inventive" on that NASA technology is based today. He also founded both NASA and Area 51.
    Did Einstein had "divine" inspiration? It's just a question for me, unanswered. I do not know how many researchers have received their information on mental interconnection channels. I do not know how many would be willing to recognize today that they are not the the true authors of the patents that they sign. How true are the stories of today that indicates close contacts, permanent between earthling scientific researchers and extra / intraterestrials? I inclined to give credence to the events described in the famous Area 51 from Nevada.
    Today, at least one representative of the world's leading scientific field, finds his inspiration of scientific order in the decoded ummite texts. This physician is called Jean-Pierre Petit - scientific director of the French National Council of Scientific Research, Director of the Observatory of Marseille. This scientist with solid reputation, an aeronautical engineer by training, began in 1975 the decoding of some very interesting texts, arrived by Spanish mail, in a way unknown, as messages of the ummits (inhabitants of the planet UMMO).
    I read about Jean Pierre Petit for the first time in an article in the newspaper "La Presse" in Montreal on 6 November 1991, article entitled "A physicist finds inspiration in extraterrestrial messages." In the following year I bought his book "Enquete sur les extraterrestres qui sont deja parmi nous - Le Mystere des Ummites" in publisher Albin Michel in 1991. The book contains a scientific appendix quite detailed that is based on the ummite texts decoded and granted by Jean Pierre Petit with the terrestrial science. The events started in the '60s, when Spanish ufologists in Madrid began to receive letters signed by Xoodo7, the son of Xoodu4, which contained scientific and technical information far beyond our knowledge. Antonio Ribeira from Barcelona gathered the letters, he was one of the recipients. The letters indicate the source of the senders: Ummite civilization - on the planet UMMO - located to 14.6 light years from Earth, in the star system IUMMA, identified by humans as the star of catalog named Wolf 424. UMMO Fair has created considerable interest in a particular period and as many other chapters of the global phenomenon called UFO - contacts with aliens, was often denigrated, and those directly involved were ridiculed. Jean Pierre Petit's attention was drawn to the incoming ummite texts arrived through the Spanish channel between 1962-1967, offering innovative solutions in the area of material strength. In short it was a technical description of the wall of a vessel of disc-shaped, with channeling structure aspect, "vascular", microtubular, containing a liquefied substance under the effect of heat and vibrations. It seems that the ummites know exactly the level of our development. The informations offered by them are a new floor at an unfinished construction. That is, that after 15 years of intense study, French physicist managed to bring an important theoretical and practical contribution in areas very different of sciences. His works of ummite inspirations refers to: the geometry of curve spaces, subsonic fluid mechanics, computer science, theory of relativity generalized. Here I must make the mention that the messages show that the ummites know very well the theory developed by Einstein and they consider it incomplete, applicable to a three-dimensional system. They literally tell us: "... Einstein's theory is not wrong, but he ignores the fact that a constant speed of light is valid in a given reference system." The Ummite texts explains that the speed of light varies in a curved universe inversely of radius R of the universe. When the radius is equal to 0, the speed of light is infinite. The texts also makes references to: interstellar travel, robotics, economics, nuclear physics, cosmology, genesis of the universe, astrophysics, electromagnetism. The main work of Jean Pierre Petit, with immediate applicability refers to the magneto-hydrodynamic propulsion and at the flight with speeds 15 times higher than the speed of sound, avoiding the sonic bang. The informations are very interesting, but from the lack of space, I do not insist on them, but I remembered only as an example of the possibility to propel from a far the technical progress of mankind. I do not know if between UMMO and I.W. there is a relationship, but it would not be impossible. We will learn later that I.W. contains in fact a federation of 70 humanoid races!.
    I gave only a few examples of what I think that was the quickening operation of human progress. It might be that those presented by me to be exaggerated and could be ... a drop in the ocean. Look at the Nobel prize-winners lists for all the scientific fields. How many of them are Hebrews .... genetically? Many! Do you think that they are smarter? I think not. My opinion is that the genetics of the Jewish structure allows an easier endowment with the implants of information. The history of the world was conducted for the Hebrews and through the Hebrews. If you don't believe read the next chapter.
    Meanwhile all the so-called modern human civilization will be nothing else but a projection more or less happier of I.W

  5. #5
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    'If people are good only because they fear punishment, and hope for reward, then we are a sorry lot indeed." (Albert Einstein)

    Einstein talks in this quote about the abstract God, who in human assumptions created the Universe and all the existence... that's so, so wrong..... Einstein was a religeous non-believer, an atheist if you like in terms of religions. More knowledge they have, the people began to leave behind the God from the Old Testament, creating their own view about God. Humans distorted completely the image of Yahweh. Obviously Einstein didn't read the document called "Decoding the ancient manuscripts". If he did he would change a little bit the perceptions about God... and yes we must have fear in the face of God the Father, and, if we deserve, to hope for a reward through Christ: the immortality.

    Remember my quote:
    "Through science and knowledge you will never get to know better our God, but you will become like God"

    That's a difference... and this difference will shatter our civilization for good.

    The first death represents the death of the soma or somatic body (biological body). This means that the energetic body is not capable anymore to make the connection between the two bodies (biological and somatic). The energetic body dies too. Actually the energetic body is just a binder between the two bodies.
    After that the spiritual body gets detached by the biological body and began its astral voyage. Where? Where it is connected, into negative matter or the other dimensions of his Universe that we can't perceive them. Many of the spiritual bodies I believe that will return into baryonic matter, into a new biological body with a process called reincarnation. Why? I believe that the reason is to perfected the structure of the spiritual DNA (abbreviated in te book "ADNMN") I believe that this process happens in the same area (in our case planet Earth) in one single program.
    The second death in the death of the spiritual body in cetain circumstances... is a lot to talk on this subject.
    This chapter has five points: 1. Biological Body
    2. Energetic body
    3. Spiritual Body (abbreviated there "C.S.")
    4. Death
    5. Reincarnation
    Be very aware with the abbreviations. For example "ADNMN" is the DNA in negative matter or the DNA of the spiritual body. "ADNMP" in stead means the DNA is positive matter or the DNA of the biological body.

    The Existence is not a person or something separate from us. We all are part of this God: The Existential God.

    And there's no free will because THERE'S NO PRIMORDIAL CAUSE INTO EXISTENCE. EVERY ELEMENT OF THE EXISTENCE IS ORGANIZED, TRANSFORMED ALL THE TIME BY ALL THE OTHER ELEMENTS THAT SURROUNDS THE ELEMENT IN THE CAUSE. Even our thoughts (effects) are influenced all the time by exteriour causes. These effects (our thoughts) became instantly causes for other effects that we produce all the time. Put a little bit your imagination in this game and you will understand the mechanism of the Existence. There's no free will and you can't get the free will. WE ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF A SYSTEM BASED ON CAUSES THAT PRODUCE EFFECTS, EFFECTS WILL TRANSFORM INSTANTLY INTO CAUSES CREATING OTHER EFFECTS FROM INFINITE TO INFINITE. Imagine for example that our Universe is organized the way that it is because of some exteriour causes that are produced into an extra-universal system (the omniverse if you like). If the Universe has these laws of physics, these constants and so on is because of some exterior causes that produced these effects (laws of physics) into our Universe. EVERY ELEMENT OF THE EXISTENCE DEPENDS BY THE OTHER ELEMENTS THAT SORROUNDS IT TO BE WHAT IT IS. (you are one of these elements, me, the atoms that surrounds us, elementary particles, planets, mountains, flowers, dark matter, dark energy... everything that exist and that we can't even imagine).. We are so limited in our perceptions.. we know nothing about this Universe, not to mention about other Universes.. omniverse.. dear God. With all our instruments we can't perceive more than 4% of this Universe.. 96 is missing.
    But from this limited point of view I dare to say that there's no free will and I explained to you through what I call: "The First Existential Law". On that law is based all the Existence... also through this law I demonstrate that this Universe does not apper from nothing.. even nothing has a previous cause for its existence. There's a cause who produce the universe and that's probably the Big Bang because this universe is not infinite and I could demonstrate that to you again. There's a long story. The Big Bang has also other causes for its own existence being at its own time an effect, the Big Bang transform instantly into a cause producing other effects.. in this case the Universe... is simple. You are also an effect produced by a whole bunch of causes that sorround you all the time, you also became instantly a cause to produce other effects arround you or even far away from you (with the thought and energies that you generate)... the universe is a very very complicated system.
    The only element that is immortal in this case is the Existence itself that is transformed all the time into that law that I send it to you. Is improper to talk about time when we talk about the existential system. The Existence is infinite in space and time, is eternal and immortal. We are all a part of this wonderful System.

    Buddhism has something to do with a little fellow called Buddha, there's also a very interesting book called "The Tibethan Book of Death". I firmly believe that Buddha has something to do with the Intraterrestrial world.. you will laugh I know

    as I explained to you, you make again confusion between Yahweh and the Existence. Yahweh is a superbeing existing in negative matter, at spiritual level, in another dimensions of this universe - who controls and leads an extraterrestrial supercivilization. He is also part of this Existence like you and me but at a completely other level of evolution and consciousness.
    As you know the Bible is given to the people by an extraterrestrial civilizaton who creates the jewish race on our planet in this programe V. KNOWLEDGE IS A SIN. ONE OF THE GREATEST SINS OF ALL. SCIENCE, TEHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE ARE SINS. Through knowledge you became like one of them, like God from the Old Testament. ctually in the Old Testament is not Yahweh the one that appears but His angels. God Yahweh has a very stable position inside the Heavenly Jerusalem, which is a gigantic space station, half the size of the Moon. As I told you we discuss here about some very advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. You can also became a God. That why Atlantis disappeared, that's we will disappear. Watch that video with Michio Kaku and the evolution of the extraterrestrail civilizations on levels. We also want to became like Them. That's why Lucifer's civilization tricks people with the idea that we will became at their level of evolution.

    The story is very complicated and I can't explain to you everything in two words here.

    I hope at least that you understand a little bit the difference between the two systems. religions are in connection with some very advanced extraterrestrial supercivilizations.

  6. #6
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    The Acentric Labyrinth: Giordano Bruno's Prelude to Contemporary Cosmology

    I The infinite universe:

    1 The universe is infinite.
    2 It is infinite because it has no borders or limits, neither does it have a surface, and hence neither circumference nor figure.
    3 The universe has no center.
    4 Space is an homogeneous and infinite continuum.
    5 The ether is identical with the void or absolute space. Thus, so understood, the void is not impossible. There is interplanetary and interstellar space (or void). The universe is not solid. The heavenly bodies are not in a vacuum, but in this medium called ether; this is their only universal ‘place’. There are no absolute voids or perfect vacuums in the universe, nor outside of it.
    6 The universe is one single whole.
    7 The infinite universe does not need an external motor to move it. In itself it is immovable, since there is nothing else it can move towards or go away from; however, everything in it is in constant motion.
    8 From the infinite universe new abundance of matter is always born.
    9 The universe is homogeneous and isotropic; there is no hierarchy in cosmic matter resulting from its relative distance from the human observer on Earth; the universe looks the same from wherever in the universe an observer may look at it. All heavenly bodies are made of the same elements and have similar composition, consistency, and structure. Neither the sun nor the Earth have any cosmological privileges over other heavenly bodies in the infinite universe. There is no essential difference between the sublunar the supralunar world.
    10 Motion is universal. All heavenly bodies are endowed with several kinds of movement, and none of them is perfectly regular.
    11 The universe had no beginning in time; it will have no end either; it is eternal.
    12 There is no absolute time. In the universe, the number of times correspond to the number of celestial bodies.
    13 The material universe consists of space, ether, atoms, and light.
    14 Light is not made up of atoms.

    II The innumerable worlds:

    15 There are innumerable, indeed infinite, suns and planets in the universe.
    16 These innumerable suns and planets are in themselves finite.
    17 Heavenly bodies move freely in space. The celestial vault or firmament – the ultimate sphere of fixed stars equidistant from the Earth – is an illusion. All heavenly bodies have in themselves their own immanent principle of movement (soul); they are automotive and animated; they do not need to be pushed or pulled by other bodies; their source of movement is internal vigor, not external impulse (mechanical push or pull).
    18 The Sun is a star and the stars are suns. They are not made up exclusively of fire, but of the same elements that make up the Earth as well as all other celestial bodies.
    19 The Sun, like all heavenly bodies, moves; it revolves around its center.
    20 Besides the visible planets, there may be other invisible ones rotating around the Sun which we cannot see because of their distance or size.
    21 There are probably other planetary orbits around other suns besides our own solar ones.
    22 The farther the planets are from the Sun, the longer are their orbits, and the longer their orbits, the slower they move around the Sun.
    23 The Earth is a planet not unlike many others in the universe. It moves freely in space, and is not a perfect sphere.
    24 There are probably living beings in other worlds.

    III The soul of the universe:

    25 The universe is one because it has one single immanent principle that holds all its parts together, just as the human soul is the one single principle that holds together and interrelates all parts of the body. It is the soul of the universe.
    26 The soul of the universe must be conceived as the principle and substance of the universe, although its true nature is extremely difficult to grasp.
    27 The universal soul is found in everything, and there is no corpuscle, however tiny, that is not animated by it.
    28 The universal soul is able to produce all from all.

    IV The universal intellect:

    29 There is order in the universe; this order is not the result of chance, as the atomists would have it, but rather the effect of an efficient cause, the universal intellect. The universal intellect is the only single immanent principle of organized complexity in the universe: Mind, God, Being, the One, Truth, Fate, Reason, Order.
    30 The agent that governs, orders, and directs everything in the universe is the intellect of the soul of the universe; the intellect is not only the formal cause and principle of the universe, but its efficient cause as well.
    31 The efficient cause of the universe, the universal intellect, must also be conceived as the final cause of the universe, for it may be conceived as having an infinite (not transcendentally pre-established) purpose, namely that all possible forms of matter it contains can be actualized, for it must become everything that it can possibly become. It so strives to achieve perfection through a full ‘explication’ or unfolding.
    32 The universe is not complete and perfect; the infinite universe is open and therefore can never reach perfect completion.

    V Matter and form:

    33 Matter and form, the passive and the active metaphysical principles of all physical reality, are inseparable, infinite, eternal, and indestructible.
    34 Matter is divine and animated from within by the equally divine formal principle.
    35 All the individual forms existing in the universe are not received by matter from outside, but all proceed from the infinitely fecund bosom of matter animated by one single form, which is the soul of the universe.
    36 The One (universal intellect or a cosmic mind) effects an infinity of forms out of uncreated matter throughout eternity. There was never a single act of creation that produced, out of nothing, a complete and perfect universe of immutable forms.
    37 All the infinite different forms in the universe are subject to constant transformations. All forms on Earth are incessantly changing into other forms, and all bodies in the universe are equally transmutable and susceptible to incessant changes.
    38 In the universe, only space and ether are continua; the rest are either discrete, perfectly solid, indivisible atoms, or the bodies of such atoms. The atoms are the most elementary particles of matter.
    39 Matter comprehends a lot more than atoms; it includes ether and light as well.
    40 Atoms are automotive and animated, that is, they have in themselves the principles of movement (they have ‘souls’). Their movements produce infinite combinations which settle down to innumerable forms.

  7. #7
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    Leiniz's Monadology - Marxists Internet Archive

    1. The monad, of which we will speak here, is nothing else than a simple substance, which goes to make up compounds; by simple, we mean without parts.

    2. There must be simple substances because there are compound substances; for the compound is nothing else than a collection or aggregatum of simple substances.

    3. Now, where there are no constituent parts there is possible neither extension, nor form, nor divisibility. These monads are the true atoms of nature, and, in a word, the elements of things.

    4. Their dissolution, therefore, is not to be feared and there is no way conceivable by which a simple substance can perish through natural means.

    5. For the same reason there is no way conceivable by which a simple substance might, through natural means, come into existence, since it can not be formed by composition.

    6. We may say then, that the existence of monads can begin or end only all at once, that is to say, the monad can begin only through creation and end only through annihilation. Compounds, however, begin or end by parts.

    7. There is also no way of explaining how a monad can be altered or changed in its inner being by any other created thing, since there is no possibility of transposition within it, nor can we conceive of any internal movement which can be produced, directed, increased or diminished within it, such as can take place in the case of compounds where a change can occur among the parts. The monads have no windows through which anything may come in or go out. The Attributes cannot detach themselves or go forth from the substances, as could sensible species of the Schoolmen. In the same way neither substance nor attribute can enter from without into a monad.

    8. Still monads need to have some qualities, otherwise they would not even be existences. And if simple substances did not differ at all in their qualities, there would be no means of perceiving any change in things. Whatever is in a compound can come into it only through its simple elements and the monads, if they were without qualities (since they do not differ at all in quantity) would be indistinguishable one from another. For instance, if we imagine a plenum or completely filled space, where each part receives only the equivalent of its own previous motion, one state of things would not be distinguishable from another.

    9. Each monad, indeed, must be different from every other monad. For there are never in nature two beings which are exactly alike, and in which it is not possible to find a difference either internal or based on an intrinsic property.

    10. I assume it as admitted that every created being, and consequently the created monad, is subject to change, and indeed that this change is continuous in each.

    11. It follows from what has just been said, that the natural changes of the monad come from an internal principle, because an external cause can have no influence on its inner being.

    12. Now besides this principle of change there must also be in the monad a variety which changes. This variety constitutes, so to speak, the specific nature and the variety of the simple substances.

    13. This variety must involve a multiplicity in the unity or in that which is simple. For since every natural change takes place by degrees, there must be something which changes and something which remains unchanged, and consequently there must be in the simple substance a plurality of conditions and relations, even though it has no parts.

    14. The passing condition which involves and represents a multiplicity in the unity, or in the simple substance, is nothing else than what is called perception. This should be carefully distinguished from apperception or consciousness, as will appear in what follows. In this matter the Cartesians have fallen into a serious error, in that they deny the existence of those perceptions of which we are not conscious. It is this also which has led them to believe that spirits alone are monads and that there are no souls of animals or other entelechies, and it has led them to make the common confusion between a protracted period of unconsciousness and actual death. They have thus adopted the Scholastic error that souls can exist entirely separated from bodies, and have even confirmed ill-balanced minds in the belief that souls are mortal.

    15. The action of the internal principle which brings about the change or the passing from one perception to another may be called appetition. It is true that the desire (l'appetit) is not always able to attain to the whole of the perception which it strives for, but it always attains a portion of it and reaches new perceptions.

    16. We, ourselves, experience a multiplicity in a simple substance, when we find that the most trifling thought of which we are conscious involves a variety in the object. Therefore all those who acknowledge that the soul is a simple substance ought to grant this multiplicity in the monad, and Monsieur Bayle should have found no difficulty in it, as he has done in his Dictionary, article Rorarius.

    17. It must be confessed, however, that perception, and that which depends upon it, are inexplicable by mechanical causes, that is to say, by figures and motions. Supposing that there were a machine whose structure produced thought, sensation, and perception, we could conceive of it as increased in size with the same proportions until one was able to enter into its interior, as he would into a mill. Now, on going into it he would find only pieces working upon one another, but never would he find anything to explain perception. It is accordingly in the simple substance, and not in the compound nor in a machine that the perception is to be sought. Furthermore, there is nothing besides perceptions and their changes to be found in the simple substance. And it is in these alone that all the internal activities of the simple substance can consist.

    18. All simple substances or created monads may be called entelechies, because they have in themselves a certain perfection. There is in them a sufficiency which makes them the source of their internal activities, and renders them, so to speak, incorporeal Automatons.

    19. If we wish to designate as soul everything which has perceptions and desires in the general sense that I have just explained, all simple substances or created monads could be called souls. But since feeling is something more than a mere perception I think that the general name of monad or entelechy should suffice for simple substances which have only perception, while we may reserve the term Soul for those whose perception is more distinct and is accompanied by memory.

    20. We experience in ourselves a state where we remember nothing and where we have no distinct perception, as in periods of fainting, or when we are overcome by a profound, dreamless sleep. In such a state the soul does not sensibly differ at all from a simple monad. As this state, however, is not permanent and the soul can recover from it, the soul is something more.

    21. Nevertheless it does not follow at all that the simple substance is in such a state without perception. This is so because of the reasons given above; for it cannot perish, nor on the other hand would it exist without some affection and the affection is nothing else than its perception. When, however, there are a great number of weak perceptions where nothing stands out distinctively, we are stunned; as when one turns around and around in the same direction, a dizziness comes on, which makes him swoon and makes him able to distinguish nothing. Among animals, death can occasion this state for quite a period.

    22. Every present state of a simple substance is a natural consequence of its preceding state, in such a way that its present is big with its future.

    23. Therefore, since on awakening after a period of unconsciousness we become conscious of our perceptions, we must, without having been conscious of them, have had perceptions immediately before; for one perception can come in a natural way only from .another perception, just as a motion can come in a natural way only from a motion.

    24. It is evident from this that if we were to have nothing distinctive, or so to speak prominent, and of a higher flavour in our perceptions, we should be in a continual state of stupor. This is the condition of monads which are wholly bare.

    25. We see that nature has given to animals heightened perception, s, having provided them with organs which collect numerous rays of light or numerous waves of air and thus make them more effective in their combination. Something similar to this takes place in the case of smell, in that of taste and of touch, and perhaps in many other senses which are unknown to us. I shall have occasion very soon to explain how that which occurs in the soul represents that which goes on in the sense organs.

    26. The memory furnishes a sort of consecutiveness which imitates reason but is to be distinguished from it. We see that animals when they have the perception of something which they notice and. of which they have had a similar previous perception, are led by the representation of their memory to expect that which was associated in the preceding perception, and they come to have feelings like those which they had before. For instance, if a stick be shown to a dog, he remembers the pain which it has caused him and he whines or runs away.

    27. The vividness of the picture, which comes to him or moves him, is derived either from the magnitude or from the number of the previous perceptions. For, oftentimes, a strong impression brings about, all at once, the same effect as a long-continued habit or as a great many reiterated, moderate perceptions.

    28. Men act in like manner as animals, in so far as the sequence of their perceptions is determined only by the law of memory, resembling the empirical physicians who practice simply, without any theory, and we are empiricists in three-fourths of our actions. For instance, when we expect that there will be daylight tomorrow, we do so empirically, because it has always happened so up to the present time. It is only the astronomer who uses his reason in making such an affirmation.

    29. But the knowledge of eternal and necessary truths is that which distinguishes us from mere animals and gives us reason and the sciences, thus raising us to a knowledge of ourselves and of God. This is what is called in us the Rational Soul or the Mind.

    30. It is also through the knowledge of necessary truths and through abstractions from them that we come to perform Reflective Acts, which cause us to think of what is called the I, and to decide that this or that is within us. it is thus, that in thinking upon ourselves we think of being, of substance, of the simple and compound, of a material thing and of God himself, conceiving that what is limited in us is in him without limits. These reflective acts furnish the principal objects of our reasonings.

    31. Our reasoning is based upon two great principles: first, that of contradiction, by means of which we decide that to be false which involves contradiction and that to be true which contradicts or is opposed to the false.

    32. And second, the principle of sufficient reason, in virtue of which we believe that no fact can be real or existing and no statement true unless it has a sufficient reason why it should be thus and not otherwise. Most frequently, however, these reasons cannot be known by us.

    33. There are also two kinds of truths: those of reasoning and those of fact. The truths of reasoning are necessary, and their opposite is impossible. Those of fact, however, are contingent, and their opposite is possible. When a truth is necessary, the reason can be found by analysis in resolving it into simpler ideas and into simpler truths until we reach those which are primary.

    34. It is thus that with mathematicians the speculative theorems and the practical canons are reduced by analysis to definitions, axioms, and postulates.

    35. There are finally simple ideas of which no definition can be given. There are also the axioms and postulates or, in a word, the primary principles which cannot be proved and, indeed, have no need of proof. These are identical propositions whose opposites involve express contradictions.

    36. But there must be also a sufficient reason for contingent truths or truths of fact; that is to say, for the sequence of the things which extend throughout the universe of created beings, where the analysis into more particular reasons can be continued into greater detail without limit because of the immense variety of the things in nature and because of the infinite division of bodies. There is an infinity of figures and of movements, present and past, which enter into the efficient cause of my present writing, and in its final cause there are an infinity of slight tendencies and dispositions of my soul, present and past.

    37. And as all this detail again involves other and more detailed contingencies, each of which again has need of a similar analysis in order to find its explanation, no real advance has been made. Therefore, the sufficient or ultimate reason must needs be outside of the sequence or series of these details of contingencies, however infinite they may be.

    38. It is thus that the ultimate reason for things must be a necessary substance, in which the detail of the changes shall be present merely potentially, as in the fountainhead, and this substance we call God.

    39. Now, since this substance is a sufficient reason for all the above mentioned details, which are linked together throughout, there is but one God, and this God is sufficient.

    40. We may hold that the supreme substance, which is unique, universal and necessary with nothing independent outside of it, which is further a pure sequence of possible being, must be incapable of limitation and must contain as much reality as possible.

    41. Whence it follows that God is absolutely perfect, perfection being understood as the magnitude of positive reality in the strict sense, when the limitations or the bounds of those things which have them are removed. There where there are no limits, that is to say, in God, perfection is absolutely infinite.

    42. It follows also that created things derive their perfections through the influence of God, but their imperfections come from their own natures, which cannot exist without limits. It is in this latter that they are distinguished from God. An example of this original imperfection of created things is to be found in the natural inertia of bodies.

    43. It is true, furthermore, that in God is found not only the source of existences, but also that of essences, in so far as they are real. In other words, he is the source of whatever there is real in the possible. This is because the Understanding of God is in the region of eternal truths or of the ideas upon which they depend, and because without him there would be nothing real in the possibilities of things, and not only would nothing be existent, nothing would be even possible.

    44. For it must needs be that if there is a reality in essences or in possibilities or indeed in the eternal 'truths, this reality is based upon something existent and actual, and, consequently, in the existence of the necessary Being in whom essence includes existence or in whom possibility is sufficient to produce actuality.

    45. Therefore God alone (or the Necessary Being) has this prerogative that if he be possible he must necessarily exist, and, as nothing is able to prevent the possibility of that which involves no bounds, no negation and consequently, no contradiction, this alone is sufficient to establish a priori his existence. We have, therefore, proved his existence through the reality of eternal truths. But a little while ago we also proved it a posteriori, because contingent beings exist which can have their ultimate and sufficient reason only in the necessary being which, in turn, has the reason for existence in itself.

    46. Yet we must not think that the eternal truths being dependent upon God are therefore arbitrary and depend upon his will, as Descartes seems to have held, and after him M. Poiret. This is the case only with contingent truths which depend upon fitness or the choice of the greatest good; necessarily truths on the other hand depend solely upon his understanding and are the inner objects of it.

    47. God alone is the ultimate unity or the original simple substance, of which all created or derivative monads are the products, and arise, so to speak, through the continual outflashings (fulgurations) of the divinity from moment to moment, limited by the receptivity of the creature to whom limitation is an essential.

  8. #8
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    Leiniz's Monadology - Marxists Internet Archive

    48. In God are present: power, which is the source of everything; knowledge, which contains the details of the ideas; and, finally, will, which changes or produces things in accordance with the principle of the greatest good. To these correspond in the created monad, the subject or basis, the faculty of perception, and the faculty of appetition. In God these attributes are absolutely infinite or perfect, while in the created monads or in the entelechies (perfectihabies, as Hermolaus Barbarus translates this word), they are imitations approaching him in proportion to the perfection.

    49. A created thing is said to act outwardly in so far as it has perfection, and to be acted upon by another in so far as it is imperfect. Thus action is attributed to the monad in so far as it has distinct perceptions, and passion or passivity is attributed in so far as it has confused perceptions.

    50. One created thing is more perfect than another when we find in the first that which gives an a priori reason for what occurs in the second. This why we say that one acts upon the other.

    51. In the case of simple substances, the influence which one monad has upon another is only ideal. It can have its effect only through the mediation of God, in so far as in the ideas of God each monad can rightly demand that God, in regulating the others from the beginning of things, should have regarded it also. For since one created monad cannot have a physical influence upon the inner being of another, it is only through the primal regulation that one can have dependence upon another.

    52. It is thus that among created things action and passivity are reciprocal. For God, in comparing two simple substances, finds in each one reasons obliging him to adapt the other to it; and consequently what is active in certain respects is passive from another point of view, active in so far as what we distinctly know in it serves to give a reason for what occurs in another, and passive in so far as the reason for what occurs in it is found in what is distinctly known in another.

    53. Now as there are an infinity of possible universes in the ideas of God, and but one of them can exist, there must be a sufficient reason' for the choice of God which determines him to select one rather than another.

    54. And this reason is to be found only in the fitness or in the degree of perfection which these worlds possess, each possible thing having the right to claim existence in proportion to the perfection which it involves.

    55. This is the cause for the existence of the greatest good; namely, that the wisdom of God permits him to know it, his goodness causes him to choose it, and his power enables him to produce it.

    56. Now this interconnection, relationship, or this adaptation of all things to each particular one, and of each one to all the rest, brings it about that every simple substance has relations which express all the others and that it is consequently a perpetual living mirror of the universe.

    57. And as the same city regarded from different sides appears entirely different, and is, as it were multiplied respectively, so, because of the infinite number of simple substances, there are a similar infinite number of universes which are, nevertheless, only the aspects of a single one as seen from the special point of view of each monad.

    58. Through this means has been obtained the greatest possible variety, together with the greatest order that may be; that is to say, through this means has been obtained the greatest possible perfection.

    59. This hypothesis, moreover, which I venture to call demonstrated, is the only one which fittingly gives proper prominence to the greatness of God. M. Bayle recognised this when in his dictionary (article Rorarius) he raised objections to it; indeed, he was inclined to believe that I attributed too much to God, and more than it is possible to attribute to him: But he was unable to bring forward any reason why this universal harmony which causes every substance to express exactly all others through the relation which it has with them is impossible.

    60. Besides, in what has just been said can be seen the a priori reasons why things cannot be otherwise than they are. It is because God, in ordering the whole, has had regard to every part and in particular to each monad; and since the monad is by its very nature representative, nothing can limit it to represent merely a part of things. It is nevertheless true that this representation is, as regards the details of the whole universe, only a confused representation, and is distinct only as regards a small part of them, that is to say, as regards those things which are nearest or greatest in relation to each monad. If the representation were distinct as to the details of the entire Universe, each monad would be a Deity. It is not in the object represented that the monads are limited, but in the modifications of their knowledge of the object. In a confused way they reach out to infinity or to the whole, but are limited and differentiated in the degree of their distinct perceptions.

    61. In this respect compounds are like simple substances, for all space is filled up; therefore, all matter is connected. And in a plenum or filled space every movement has an effect upon bodies in proportion to this distance, so that not only is every body affected by those which are in contact with it and responds in some way to whatever happens to them, but also by means of them the body responds to, those bodies adjoining them, and their intercommunication reaches to any distance whatsoever. Consequently every body responds to all that happens in the universe, so that h e who saw all could read in each one what is happening everywhere, and even what has happened and what will happen. He can discover in the present what is distant both as regards space and as regards time; "all things conspire" as Hippocrates said. A soul can, however, read in itself only what is there represented distinctly. It cannot all at once open up all its folds, because they extend to infinity.

    62. Thus although each created monad represents the whole universe, it represents more distinctly the body which specially pertains to it and of which it constitutes the entelechy. And as this body expresses all the universe through the interconnection of all matter in the plenum, the soul also represents the whole universe in representing this body, which belongs to it in a particular way.

    63. The body belonging to a monad, which is its entelechy or soul, constitutes together with the entelechy what may be called a rising being, and with a soul what is called an animal. Now this body of a living being or of an animal is always organic, because every monad is a mirror of the universe is regulated with perfect order there must needs be order also in what represents it, that is to say in the perceptions of the soul and consequently in the body through which the, universe is represented in the soul.

    64. Therefore every organic body of a living being is a kind of divine machine or natural automaton, infinitely surpassing all artificial automatons. Because a machine constructed by man's skill is not a machine in each of its parts; for instance, the teeth of a brass wheel have parts or bits which to us are not artificial products and contain nothing in themselves to show the use to which the wheel was destined in the machine. The machines of nature, however, that is to say, living bodies, are still machines in their smallest parts ad infinitum. Such is the difference between nature and art, that is to say, between divine art and ours.

    65. The author of nature has been able to employ this divine and infinitely marvellous artifice, because each portion of matter is not only, as the ancients recognised, infinitely divisible, but also because it is really divided without end, every part into other parts, each one of which has its own proper motion. Otherwise it would be impossible for each portion of matter to express all the universe.

    66. Whence we see that there is a world of created things, of living beings, of animals, of entelechies, of souls, in the minutest particle of matter.

    67. Every portion of matter may be conceived as like a garden full of plants and like a pond full of fish. But every branch of a plant, every member of an animal, and every drop of the fluids within it, is also such a garden or such a pond.

    68. And although the ground and air which lies between the plants of the garden, and the water which is between the fish in the pond, are not themselves plants or fish, yet they nevertheless contain these, usually so small however as to be imperceptible to us.

    69. There is, therefore, nothing uncultivated, or sterile or dead in the universe, no chaos, no confusion, save in appearance; somewhat as a pond would appear at a distance when we could see in it a confused movement, and so to speak, a swarming of the fish, without however discerning the fish themselves.

    70. It is evident, then, that every living body has a dominating entelechy, which in animals is the soul. The parts, however, of this living body are full of other living beings, plants and animals, which in turn have each one its entelechy or dominating soul.

    71. This does not mean, as some who have misunderstood my thought have imagined, that each soul has a quantity or portion of matter appropriated to it or attached to itself for ever, and that it consequently owns other inferior living beings destined to serve it always; because all bodies are in a state of perpetual flux like rivers, and the parts are continually entering in or passing out.

    72. The soul, therefore, changes its body only gradually and by degrees, so that it is never deprived all at once of all its organs. There is frequently a metamorphosis in animals, but never metempsychosis or a transmigration of souls. Neither are there souls wholly separate from bodies, nor bodiless spirits. God alone is without body.

    73. This is also why there is never absolute generation or perfect death in the strict sense, consisting in the separation of the soul from the body. What we call generation is development and growth, and what we call death is envelopment and diminution.

    74. Philosophers have been much perplexed in accounting for the origin of forms, entelechies, or souls. Today, however, when it has been learned through careful investigations made in plant, insect and animal life, that the organic bodies of nature are never the product of chaos or putrefaction, but always come from seeds in which there was without doubt some preformation, it has been decided that not only is the organic body already present before conception, but also a soul in this body, in a word, the animal itself; and it has been decided that, by means of conception the animal is merely made ready for a great transformation, so as to become an animal of another sort. We can see cases somewhat similar outside of generation when grubs become flies and caterpillars butterflies.

    75. These little animals, some of which by conception become large animals' may be called spermatic. Those among them which remain in their species, that is to say, the greater part, are born, multiply, and are destroyed, like the larger animals. There are only a few chosen ones which come out upon a greater stage.

    76. This, however, is only half the truth. I believe, therefore, that if the animal never actually commences by natural means, no more does it by natural means come to an end. Not only is there no generation, but also there is no entire destruction or absolute death. These reasonings, carried on a posteriori and drawn from experience, accord perfectly with the principles which I have above deduced a priori.

    77. Therefore we may say that not only the soul (the mirror of the indestructible universe) is indestructible, but also the animal itself is, although its mechanism is frequently destroyed in parts and although it puts off and takes on organic coatings.

    78. These principles have furnished me the means of explaining on natural grounds the union, or rather the conformity between the soul and the organic body. The soul follows its own laws, and the body likewise follows its own laws. They are fitted to each other in virtue of the preestablished harmony between all substances since they are all representations of one and the same universe.

    79. Souls act in accordance with the laws of final causes through their desires, ends and means. Bodies act in accordance with the laws of efficient causes or of motion. The two realms, that of efficient causes and that of final causes, are in harmony, each with the other.

    80. Descartes saw that souls cannot at all impart force to bodies, because there is always the same quantity of force in matter. Yet he thought that the soul could change the direction of bodies. This was, however, because at that time the law of nature which affirms also that conservation of the same total direction in the motion of matter was not known. If he had known that law, he would have fallen upon my system of preestablished harmony.

    81. According to this system bodies act as if (to suppose the impossible) there were no souls at all, and souls act as if there were no bodies, and yet both body and soul act as if the one were influencing the other.

    82. Although I find that essentially the same thing is true of all living things and animals, which we have just said (namely, that animals and souls begin from the very commencement of the world and that they no more come to an end than does the world) nevertheless, rational animals have this peculiarity, that their little spermatic animals, as long as they remain such, have only ordinary or sensuous souls, but those of them which are, so to speak, elected, attain by actual conception to human nature, and their sensuous souls are raised to the rank of reason and to the prerogative of spirits.

    83. Among the differences that there are between ordinary souls and spirits, some of which I have already instanced, there is also this, that while souls in general are living mirrors or images of the universe of created things, spirits are also images of the Deity himself or of the author of nature. They are capable of knowing the system of the universe, and of imitating some features of it by means of artificial models, each spirit being like a small divinity in its own sphere.

    84. Therefore, spirits are able to enter into a sort of social relationship with God, and with respect to them he is not only what an inventor is to his machine (as in his relation to the other created things), but he is also what a prince is to his subjects, and even what a father is to his children.

    85. Whence it is easy to conclude that the totality of all spirits must compose the city of God, that is to say, the most perfect state that is possible under the most perfect monarch.

    86. This city of God, this truly universal monarchy, is a moral world within the natural world. It is what is noblest and most divine among the works of God. And in it consists in reality the glory of God, because he would have no glory were not his greatness and goodness known and wondered at by spirits. It is also in relation to this divine city that God properly has goodness. His wisdom and his power are shown everywhere.

    87. As we established above that there is a perfect harmony between the two natural realms of efficient and final causes, it will be in place here to point out another harmony which appears between the physical realm of nature and the moral realm of grace, that is to say, between God considered as the architect of the mechanism of the world and God considered as the monarch of the divine city of spirits.

    88. This harmony brings it about that things progress of themselves toward grace along natural lines, and that this earth, for example, must be destroyed and restored by natural means at those times when the proper government of spirits demands it, for chastisement in the one case and for a reward in the other.

    89. We can say also that God, the Architect, satisfies in all respects God the Law Giver, that therefore sins will bring their own penalty with them through the order of nature, and because of the very structure of things, mechanical though it is. And in the same way the good actions will attain their rewards in mechanical way through their relation to bodies, although this cannot and ought not always to take place without delay.

    90. Finally, under this perfect government, there will be no good action unrewarded and no evil action unpunished; everything must turn out for the well-being of the good; that is to say, of those who are not disaffected in this great state, who, after having done their duty, trust in Providence and who love and imitate, as is meet, the Author of all Good, delighting in the contemplation of his perfections according to the nature of that genuine, pure love which finds pleasure in the happiness of those who are loved. It is for this reason that wise and virtuous persons work in behalf of everything which seems conformable to presumptive or antecedent will of God, and are, nevertheless, content with what God actually brings to pass through his secret, consequent and determining will, recognising that if we were able to understand sufficiently well the order of the universe, we should find that it surpasses all the desires of the wisest of us, and that it is impossible to render it better than it is, not only for all in general, but also for each one of us in particular, provided that we have the proper attachment for the author of all, not only as the Architect and the efficient cause of our being, but also as our Lord and the Final Cause, who ought to be the whole goal of our will, and who alone can make us happy.

  9. #9
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    The perspectives of Nietzsche

    Truth and Knowledge
    Cause and effect: such a duality probably never exists; in truth we are confronted by a continuum out of which we isolate a couple of pieces, just as we perceive motion only as isolated points and then infer it without ever actually seeing it. The suddenness with which many effects stand out misleads us; actually, it is sudden only for us. In this moment of suddenness there are an infinite number of processes which elude us. An intellect that could see cause and effect as a continuum and a flux and not, as we do, in terms of an arbitrary division and dismemberment, would repudiate the concept of cause and effect and deny all conditionality.

    from Nietzsche's The Gay Science, s.112, Walter Kaufmann transl..
    To renounce belief in one's ego, to deny one's own "reality" -- what a triumph! not merely over the senses, over appearance, but a much higher kind of triumph, a violation and cruelty against reason -- a voluptuous pleasure that reaches its height when the ascetic self-contempt and self-mockery of reason declares: "there is a realm of truth and being, but reason is excluded from it!"
    But precisely because we seek knowledge, let us not be ungrateful to such resolute reversals of accustomed perspectives and valuations with which the spirit has, with apparent mischievousness and futility, raged against itself for so long: to see differently in this way for once, to want to see differently, is no small discipline and preparation for its future "objectivity" -- the latter understood not as "contemplation without interest" (which is a nonsensical absurdity), but as the ability to control one's Pro and Con and to dispose of them, so that one knows how to employ a variety of perspectives and affective interpretations in the service of knowledge.
    Henceforth, my dear philosophers, let us be on guard against the dangerous old conceptual fiction that posited a "pure, will-less, painless, timeless knowing subject"; let us guard against the snares of such contradictory concepts as "pure reason," absolute spirituality," "knowledge in itself": these always demand that we should think of an eye that is completely unthinkable, an eye turned in no particular direction, in which the active and interpreting forces, through which alone seeing becomes seeing something, are supposed to be lacking; these always demand of the eye an absurdity and a nonsense. There is only a perspective seeing, only a perspective "knowing"; and the more affects we allow to speak about one thing, the more eyes, different eyes, we can use to observe one thing, the more complete will our "concept" of this thing, our "objectivity," be. But to eliminate the will altogether, to suspend each and every affect, supposing we were capable of this -- what would that mean but to castrate the intellect?

    from Nietzsche's The Genealogy of Morals, s III.12, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Will to Power
    Suppose nothing else were "given" as real except our world of desires and passions, and we could not get down, or up, to any other "reality" besides the reality of our drives--for thinking is merely a relation of these drives to each other: is it not permitted to make the experiment and to ask the question whether this "given" would not be sufficient for also understanding on the basis of this kind of thing the so-called mechanistic (or "material") world?...

    In the end not only is it permitted to make this experiment; the conscience of method demands it. Not to assume several kinds of causality until the experiment of making do with a single one has been pushed to its utmost limit (to the point of nonsense, if I may say so)... The question is in the end whether we really recognize the will as efficient, whether we believe in the causality of the will: if we do--and at bottom our faith in this is nothing less than our faith in causality itself--then we have to make the experiment of positing causality of the will hypothetically as the only one. "Will," of course, can affect only "will"--and not "matter" (not "nerves," for example). In short, one has to risk the hypothesis whether will does not affect will wherever "effects" are recognized--and whether all mechanical occurrences are not, insofar as a force is active in them, will force, effects of will.

    Suppose, finally, we succeeded in explaining our entire instinctive life as the development and ramification of one basic form of the will--namely, of the will to power, as my proposition has it... then one would have gained the right to determine all efficient force univocally as--will to power. The world viewed from inside... it would be "will to power" and nothing else.

    from Beyond Good and Evil, s.36, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Plan for an unfinished book: The Eternal Recurrence
    My philosophy brings the triumphant idea of which all other modes of thought will ultimately perish. It is the great cultivating idea: the races that cannot bear it stand condemned; those who find it the greatest benefit are chosen to rule...

    I want to teach the idea that gives many the right to erase themselves - the great cultivating idea...

    Everything becomes and recurs eternally - escape is impossible! - Supposing we could judge value, what follows? The idea of recurrence as a selective principle, in the service of strength (and barbarism!!)...

    To endure the idea of the recurrence one needs: freedom from morality; new means against the fact of pain ( pain conceived as a tool, as the father of pleasure...); the enjoyment of all kinds of uncertainty, experimentalism, as a counterweight to this extreme fatalism; abolition of the concept of necessity; abolition of the "will"; abolition of "knowledge-in-itself."

    Greatest elevation of the consciousness of strength in man, as he creates the overman.

    from The Will to Power, s. 1053,1056,1058,1060, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Towards the Ubermensch
    "I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?
    All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment...
    Behold, I teach you the overman. The overman is the meaning of the earth.Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they, whether they know it or not. Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselves, of whom the earth is weary: so let them go.
    Once the sin against God was the greatest sin; but God died, and these sinners died with him. To sin against the earth is now the most dreadful thing, and to esteem the entrails of the unknowable higher than the meaning of the earth...
    What is the greatest experience you can have? It is the hour of the great contempt. The hour when your happiness, too, arouses your disgust, and even your reason and your virtue.
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my happiness? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment. But my happiness ought to justify existence itself.'
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my reason? Does it crave knowledge as the lion his food? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment.'
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my virtue? As yet it has not made me rage. How weary I am of my good and my evil! All that is poverty and filth and wretched contentment.'
    "Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman--a rope over an abyss...
    What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end: what can be loved in man is that he is an overture and a going under...
    "I say unto you: one must still have chaos in oneself to be able to give birth to a dancing star. I say unto you: you still have chaos in yourselves.
    Alas, the time is coming when man will no longer give birth to a star. Alas, the time of the most despicable man is coming, he that is no longer able to despise himself. Behold, I show you the last man.
    'What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?' thus asks the last man, and blinks.
    The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is as ineradicable as the flea; the last man lives longest.
    'We have invented happiness,'say the last men, and they blink. They have left the regions where it was hard to live, for one needs warmth. One still loves one's neighbor and rubs against him, for one needs warmth...
    One still works, for work is a form of entertainment. But one is careful lest the entertainment be too harrowing. One no longer becomes poor or rich: both require too much exertion. Who still wants to rule? Who obey? Both require too much exertion.
    No shepherd and one herd! Everybody wants the same, everybody is the same: whoever feels different goes voluntarily into a madhouse.
    'Formerly, all the world was mad,' say the most refined, and they blink...
    One has one's little pleasure for the day and one's little pleasure for the night: but one has a regard for health.
    'We have invented happiness,' say the last men, and they blink."

    from Nietzsche's Thus spoke Zarathustra, p.3,4,5, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Of the three metamorphoses of the spirit I tell you: how the spirit becomes a camel; and the camel, a lion; and the lion, finally, a child.
    There is much that is difficult for the spirit, the strong, reverent spirit that would bear much: but the difficult and the most difficult are what its strength demands.
    What is difficult? asks the spirit that would bear much, and kneels down like a camel wanting to be well loaded. What is most difficult, O heroes, asks the spirit that would bear much, that I may take it upon myself and exult in my strength? Is it not humbling oneself to wound one's haughtiness? Letting one's folly shine to mock one's wisdom?...
    Or is it this: stepping into filthy waters when they are the waters of truth, and not repulsing cold frogs and hot toads?
    Or is it this: loving those that despise us and offering a hand to the ghost that would frighten us?
    All these most difficult things the spirit that would bear much takes upon itself: like the camel that, burdened, speeds into the desert, thus the spirit speeds into its desert.
    In the loneliest desert, however, the second metamorphosis occurs: here the spirit becomes a lion who would conquer his freedom and be master in his own desert. Here he seeks out his last master: he wants to fight him and his last god; for ultimate victory he wants to fight with the great dragon.
    Who is the great dragon whom the spirit will no longer call lord and god? "Thou shalt" is the name of the great dragon. But the spirit of the lion says, "I will." "Thou shalt" lies in his way, sparkling like gold, an animal covered with scales; and on every scale shines a golden "thou shalt."
    Values, thousands of years old, shine on these scales; and thus speaks the mightiest of all dragons: "All value has long been created, and I am all created value. Verily, there shall be no more 'I will.'" Thus speaks the dragon.
    My brothers, why is there a need in the spirit for the lion? Why is not the beast of burden, which renounces and is reverent, enough?
    To create new values -- that even the lion cannot do; but the creation of freedom for oneself and a sacred "No" even to duty -- for that, my brothers, the lion is needed. To assume the right to new values -- that is the most terrifying assumption for a reverent spirit that would bear much. Verily, to him it is preying, and a matter for a beast of prey. He once loved "thou shalt" as most sacred: now he must find illusion and caprice even in the most sacred, that freedom from his love may become his prey: the lion is needed for such prey.
    But say, my brothers, what can the child do that even the lion could not do? Why must the preying lion still become a child? The child is innocence and forgetting, a new beginning, a game, a self-propelled wheel, a first movement, a sacred "Yes." For the game of creation, my brothers, a sacred "Yes" is needed: the spirit now wills his own will, and he who had been lost to the world now conquers the world.

    from Nietzsche's Thus spoke Zarathustra, part I, Walter Kaufmann transl.

  10. #10
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
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    Spinoza’s Ethics

    Spinoza’s Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata (Ethics demonstrated in geometrical order) is based on a deductive method derived from Euclidean geometry. Spinoza maintains that the validity of ethical ideas can be demonstrated by mathematical argument or proof. Spinoza asserts that ethics can be based on a geometric model in which axioms and propositions follow each other with logical necessity. This reflects the view that ethical truth has the same logical necessity as mathematical truth. Spinoza sees ethics as a rational system corresponding to the rational nature of the universe.

    The Ethics is divided into five parts: Part I. "Of God;" Part II. "Of the Nature and Origin of the Mind;" Part III. "Of the Origin and Nature of the Emotions;" Part IV. "Of Human Bondage, or Of the Strength of the Emotions;" Part V. "Of the Power of the Intellect, or Of Human Liberty."

    Each of the five parts of the Ethics consists of several definitions and axioms, followed by a series of propositions and corollaries.

    The propositions of Part III are followed by forty-eight definitions of the emotions, including desire, pleasure, pain, love, hatred, hope, fear, despair, joy, disappointment, humility, pride, anger, shame, cruelty, benevolence, etc.

    Spinoza begins by describing what can be known about God. God is infinite being, according to Spinoza. God is infinite substance, consisting of infinite attributes, each of which expresses God’s eternal and infinite essence (I, Prop. XI).1

    God necessarily exists, argues Spinoza, because God’s essence is existence. God’s essence is perfect, and therefore God's perfection implies that God must exist. God’s essence and existence are the same (I, Prop. XX). Each attribute which expresses God’s essence also expresses God’s existence.

    According to Spinoza, infinite substance is indivisible (I, Prop. XIII). If infinite substance were divisible, it could either be divided into two finite parts, which is impossible, or it could be divided into two equally infinite parts, which is also impossible. Thus, there is only one infinite substance.

    Since God is infinite substance, Spinoza argues, no attribute which expresses the essence of substance can be denied of God (I, Prop. XIV). Every being has its being in God. Nothing can come into being or exist without God.

    According to Spinoza, the will and the intellect are modes of thought. The will is the same as the intellect. In God, intellect is actual and not potential, because in God intellect is fully actualized. This means that things must necessarily occur in the manner in which they occur, because the intellect or will of God is fully actualized.

    For Spinoza, God is the necessary cause of all things. All things by nature proceed from necessity. All things are predetermined by God, and for anything that exists, some effect must follow.

    Spinoza argues that thought is one of the attributes of God (II, Prop. I). God can think an infinite number of things in an infinite number of ways. God’s infinite intellect comprehends all of God’s attributes.

    According to Spinoza, God is the essence of substance. Thought and extension are attributes of God. Thus, God is the essence of thinking substance (i.e. mind) and of extended substance (i.e. body).

    Substance is defined by Spinoza as a mode of being which implies necessary existence. God is infinite substance, and outside of God no other substance is possible. Thus, Spinoza’s philosophy is pantheistic, in that it claims that God is present in all things.

    Spinoza argues that the human mind is a part of the infinite intellect of God (II, Prop. XI, Corollary). All ideas are present in the intellect of God. Ideas are true and adequate insofar as they refer to God. Ideas that logically follow from adequate ideas are also adequate. Ideas are false and inadequate insofar as they do not express the essence of God.

    According to Spinoza, an idea is adequate and perfect insofar as it represents knowledge of the eternal and infinite essence of God. Spinoza says that, since the idea of anything actually existing must come from God, the human mind is capable of knowing God (II, Prop. XLV).

    For Spinoza, the will cannot be separated from the intellect. There is no such thing as free will, because the human mind is determined in its willing by a cause other than itself. God’s will, which has no cause other than itself, reveals itself by necessity rather than by freedom. Thus, Spinoza explains that the will can only be a necessary cause of action, and not a free cause of action (I, Prop. XXXII).

    Spinoza also argues that from any idea, an effect must necessarily follow. Insofar as an idea adequately refers to God, its effect is caused immediately by God. Insofar as an idea inadequately refers to God, its effect has intermediary causes and is not caused immediately by God.

    Spinoza explains that the human mind may have both adequate and inadequate ideas. The mind is active insofar as it has adequate ideas, and is passive insofar as it has inadequate ideas. The mind may have more or less adequate ideas, according to whether it is more or less subject to reason. The mind may have more or less inadequate ideas, according to whether it is more or less subject to emotion.

    According to Spinoza there are three primary emotions: desire, pleasure, and pain. All emotions arise from desire, pleasure, or pain. Desire may arise from either pleasure or pain. Pleasure may be produced by a transition from a lesser to a greater state of perfection. Pain may be produced by a transition from a greater to a lesser state of perfection.

    For Spinoza, perfection is the same as reality II, Def. VI). The more perfect a thing is, the more real it is. Inasmuch as God is absolutely perfect, God is also absolutely real. God is infinitely perfect and infinitely real.

    Spinoza claims that the more perfect a thing is, the more active and less passive it is. The more active a thing is, the more it becomes perfect (IV, Prop. XL). Perfection and imperfection are modes of thought.2 The mind is most perfect when it knows God.

    Spinoza argues that knowledge of good and evil arises from the awareness of what causes pleasure and pain. The greatest good of the mind, and its greatest virtue, is to know God (IV, Prop. XXVIII). To act with virtue is to act according to reason (IV, Prop. XXXVI). If we act according to reason, then we desire only what is good. If we act according to reason, then we try to promote what is good not only for ourselves but for others. Freedom is the ability to act according to reason. Freedom is not the ability to make free, undetermined choices. Freedom is the ability to act rationally and to control the emotions. Servitude is the inability to act rationally or to control the emotions.

    Spinoza admits that all emotions may not necessarily conflict with reason. Emotions which agree with reason may cause pleasure, while emotions which do not agree with reason may cause pain. Inability to control the emotions may cause pain.

    According to Spinoza, pain is the knowledge of evil. Pain arises from inadequate ideas, i.e. ideas which do not adequately express the essence of God. Knowledge of evil is thus inadequate knowledge (IV, Prop. XIV). Pleasure is knowledge of what is good. Pleasure arises from adequate ideas, i.e. ideas which adequately express the essence of God. Knowledge of good is thus adequate knowledge.

    Spinoza argues that to live according to reason is to live freely, and is not to live in servitude to the emotions. If we act according to reason, then we are guided by love and good-will and not by fear or hatred.

    Spinoza maintains that reason can control the emotions. Reason is virtue, and virtue is love toward God. The more we love God, the more we are able to control our emotions (V, Prop. XLII, Proof). The better we can control our emotions, the better we can understand God.

    For Spinoza, the more active the mind is, the more adequately it knows God. The more passive the mind is, the less adequately it knows God. The more active the mind is, the more it is able to avoid emotions which are evil. The more passive the mind is, the more it accepts emotions which are evil.

    The question arises as to whether Spinoza’s philosophy is able to reconcile the existence of good with the existence of evil, or the existence of truth with the existence of falsehood. If God is infinite substance, then how can any kind of evil or falsehood occur? If God is perfect, then how can God allow the existence of evil or suffering? Spinoza’s answer is that evil is a lack of good and that falsehood is a lack of truth. Error and falsehood arise from inadequate knowledge of God. Knowledge of evil arises from inadequate ideas, i.e. ideas that do not adequately refer to God. Knowledge of good arises from adequate ideas, i.e. ideas that adequately refer to God.

    Spinoza argues that all ideas are found in God, but that ideas are true only insofar as they adequately refer to God. Truth is adequate knowledge, but falsehood is inadequate knowledge.

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