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    Neuroticism and Common Mental Disorders: Meaning and Utility of a Complex Relationship

    Abstract

    Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models seek to explain the association, including the spectrum model (manifestations of the same process), common cause model (shared determinants), state and scar models (CMD episode adds temporary / permanent neuroticism). To examine their validity we reviewed literature on confounding, operational overlap, stability and change, determinants, and treatment effects. None of the models is able to account for (virtually) all findings. The state and scar model cannot explain the prospective association. The spectrum model has some relevance, especially for internalizing disorders. Common causes are most important but the vulnerability model cannot be excluded although confounding of the prospective association by baseline symptoms and psychiatric history is substantial. In fact, some of the findings, such as interactions with stress and the small decay of neuroticism's effect over time, are consistent with the vulnerability model. We describe research designs that discriminate the remaining models and plea for deconstruction of neuroticism. Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk.

  2. #32
    Moderator Yuu's Avatar
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    I shall pass this onto my husband and then have him summarize. We both find it interesting but I don't have the patience to read it all.
    “ they’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of us, they’re behind us…they can’t get away this time”

    "These voices scream at me "Let it go!"
    (never let go)
    This time I'm screaming back "No! No! No!"
    (Go on say no)
    My mind's made up, yeah my fear is gone
    Open my eyes now here I come: Oblivion."

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    Neurotransmitter output is interconnected with gut flora...In fact, the onset of Bipolar Disorder is due to a disturbance in the microbiota. Without proper regulation of gut flora, our digestive system would become inefficient, leading to hormone imbalances (promoting mood swings/Neurotic-ism), diminished motivation + well being (hence reduction in Conscientiousness + Extroversion/sociability + Openness to Experience + Agreeableness), Therefore, the positive aspects of the Big Five traits would be flipped. Note the although energy levels are directly proportional to Openness to Experience, the decline in mental health/emotion associated with an imbalance in gut flora can cause one to try new drugs/substances to temporarily amplify dopamine/serotonin/gaba as a coping mechanism (the underline emphasizes that openness to positive experience (+ energy) would likely be reduced and replaced with negative experiences (- energy)).

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    Quote Originally Posted by hurl3y4456 View Post
    Neurotransmitter output is interconnected with gut flora...In fact, the onset of Bipolar Disorder is due to a disturbance in the microbiota. Without proper regulation of gut flora, our digestive system would become inefficient, leading to hormone imbalances (promoting mood swings/Neurotic-ism), diminished motivation + well being (hence reduction in Conscientiousness + Extroversion/sociability + Openness to Experience + Agreeableness), Therefore, the positive aspects of the Big Five traits would be flipped. Note the although energy levels are directly proportional to Openness to Experience, the decline in mental health/emotion associated with an imbalance in gut flora can cause one to try new drugs/substances to temporarily amplify dopamine/serotonin/gaba as a coping mechanism (the underline emphasizes that openness to positive experience (+ energy) would likely be reduced and replaced with negative experiences (- energy)).
    Neuroticism is not necessarily a negative or unhealthy trait. Gut microflora as an important part of the digestive system influences the overall well-being including mental health, but personality is much more complex than that. Epigenetics explains why having two different conditions in different people could lead to the same behavior. Because personality is also memory and knowledge apart from also being genetically favored, and this is physiologically explained by neuronal connections.
    Last edited by Lib; 11-06-2018 at 06:28 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lib View Post
    Neuroticism is not necessarily a negative or unhealthy trait. Gut microflora as an important part of the digestive system influences the overall well-being including mental health, but personality is much more complex than that.
    Yes, I agree that neuroticism is not necessarily negative, however, if there is some form of imbalance within the body (gut Dysbiosis--> hormonal issues),it may amplify to the extreme, which will result in negative consequences. Some aspects of neurotic behavior is needed for survival...for instance, anxiety/fear could be a reaction in response to anticipating a negative outcome, which prepares one to act accordingly to prevent it. A healthy dosage of neuroticism will increase the likelihood that one will avoid certain circumstances according to their perception of the outcome, which is positive.

    Also, I agree that personality is dictated by various factors aside from the gut connection and is complex down to its core (personality can be analogous to an onion and its layers). It may cause one to become depressed or more prone to anger, but the personality stays intact (the form of the onion stays the same yet a few layers may be altered slightly).

    Quote Originally Posted by Lib View Post
    Epigenetics explains why having two different conditions in different people could lead to a different behavior. Because personality is also memory and knowledge apart from also being genetically favored, and this is physiologically explained by neuronal connections.
    Yes, our genetic makeup will gravitate us toward a certain environmental stimulus depending on the situation, which helps promote/develop our identity over time. The memories and knowledge are a basis for our personality to be outwardly expressed.
    Likes Lib liked this post

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    Quote Originally Posted by hurl3y4456 View Post
    Yes, I agree that neuroticism is not necessarily negative, however, if there is some form of imbalance within the body (gut Dysbiosis--> hormonal issues),it may amplify to the extreme, which will result in negative consequences. Some aspects of neurotic behavior is needed for survival...for instance, anxiety/fear could be a reaction in response to anticipating a negative outcome, which prepares one to act accordingly to prevent it. A healthy dosage of neuroticism will increase the likelihood that one will avoid certain circumstances according to their perception of the outcome, which is positive.
    Also, neuroticism could translate to perfectionism, performance improvement.
    Likes hurl3y4456 liked this post

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