# Thread: The Essence Of Jungian Functions

1. ## The Essence of Jungian Functions

I've seen countless people try to define the functions and always miss the point of the definition. This is because instead of defining the essence of the functions, everyone judges them on the traits that are associated with them. So I decided it's time for a no bullshit guide to what the cognitive functions truly are.

In the following I will layout what is essential to the existence of each function; looking at what fundamental qualities distinguishes them from one another. I will start from a comprehensive view, observing the big picture, and work my way down to the specifics, focusing on the distinguishing details. In doing so, I will capture what is at the core of each function, shining light on the substance as opposed to the appearance.

Introversion vs. Extroversion

The first thing to be aware of is the expression in which each function could take: extroverted or introverted. These two expressions are simply directive: extroversion is objective, focused on the object, while introversion is subjective, focused on the subject; but what exactly is the difference between the subject and the object?

Extroversion is focused outward onto or towards the object. So, what is the object? In its whole, the object is physical reality and everything that occurs with in it. So, you could say extroversion is bound by the object or physical reality. Due to the nature of extroversion being bound by physical reality (the object), it is consequently limited by the laws of reality:
* Mathematics- numeric value system
* Physics- laws of physical reality
* Logic- system of reasoning to the truth corresponding to reality
This means that Extroversion is factual, tangible, or OBJECTive. This is why many people relate Te to empiricism and the scientific method; both empiricism and the scientific method are forms of logic (Thinking) focused on what actually happens in physical reality (the object).

Introversion is focused inward or into (or maybe even out of?) the subject. So, again, what is the subject? The subject is the individual, the totality of the mind, or being. While extroversion is limited by the outer world, introversion is only bound by the constraints of which the individual holds on itself. Some of these constraints are, but not limited too:
* Knowledge- obtained information
* Emotions- biological influences on the mind
This means that introversion is personal, individual, or SUBJECTive. This is why people refer to introverted judging functions as "an internal system of", because internal judging functions base information on a subjective criteria, or an internal system.

The Functions

Many misleadingly refer to 8 functions; this is not entirely accurate. In essence, there are 4 functions: Intuition, Sensation, Thinking, and Feeling, all of which can express themselves in one of two ways: extroverted or introverted.

Of the 4 functions we can easily categorize them into two groups: perceiving (Intuition & Sensation), and Judging (Thinking & Feeling). Perceiving functions are simply the function in which we use to absorb and process information of the world. Judging functions analyze and catalogue that information for further understanding and utilization. As you can see, the tension between perceiving and judging functions is minimal; both work together to interpret and discern the world.

So, what is the world? The world is the things that actually exist. This isn't to be confused with physical reality. While physical reality is part of existence, existence is not dependent on physical reality. You could say that physical reality is physical existence or that which exists physically. The other side of existence (the world) is the inner world, or nonphysical reality. This is the world that exists inside ones head, or the mind. To simplify, the world exists in fundamentally one of two ways: materially and physically (outer world), and immaterially and nonphysically (inner world).

Now that we understand the essence of functions in general we can begin to further discern the essence of the functions individually. Again, this could be done quite simply:
* Intuition- unconscious perception
* Sensation- conscious perception
* Thinking- logical analysis
* Feeling- values/ ethical analysis

Intuition vs. Sensation

Intuition is unconscious perception. So, what the hell does that mean? Well, while sensation is conscious perception, information of the world that you can see, hear, feel, and ultimately observe with awareness, intuition is the information that slips by the conscious mind and goes "unrecognized".

Due to its unconscious nature, we are very much unaware of the process of Intuition, which makes it mysterious in general. One way to make better sense of Intuition is to realize how its works come into conscious thought. You could say that unconsciously processed information, once the dots are connected, surfaces to the conscious mind in the form of insights, realizations, and epiphany's; these are the products of Intuition, information that has been consumed, thrown out of the realm of awareness, and processed unconsciously with out the aware mind observing its procedures. This is why people say highly intuitive individuals seem to "just know stuff", it's because they are unaware of how they came to their understandings.

Now, intuition is known for being creative and big picture oriented, exploring the underlying meaning of reality. This is because, while Sensation deals with the concrete, that which has a place in physical reality (this is largely due to language being constructed on what physically exists), Intuition deals with the abstractions, painting a sort of picture through analogy that is symbolic of reality. This makes sense, the unconscious mind is known for its symbolism and archetypical recognition skills; Intuition is the unconscious mind.

So, now, Sensation. Since Intuition is the unconscious perceiving function, Sensation is naturally the conscious one. As said, Sensation is information that you can see, hear, feel, and ultimately observe seemingly "right now". This gives the false impression that Sensation is that of the senses, which is not entirely true, the conscious mind is just highly influenced by sensory information due to the significant power sensory stimuli has over our awareness. While Intuition is analogous and symbolic, Sensation is concrete; this is because conscious thought uses language that is reflective or holding a place in physical reality, the concrete. You could say sensory stimuli clouds or even "blinds" our conscious mind.

In nature, Sensation is that information of the world which you are aware of, or conscious of. It is the information that you observe moment to moment, often pertaining to that of your physical surrounding (sensory stimulation) but not limited to just that; Sensation has the ability to observe both the inner and outer world, your physical and nonphysical "surroundings". Due to the fact that the conscious mind is highly clouded by the senses, most of what we consciously perceive comes in the form this concret language: words, images, concepts, all pertaining to the physical world.

Sensation understands the world as it corresponds with the senses, due to this, it translates its thoughts into a language that reflects the senses, using words as symbols for things that actually exist in the sensory world. While Intuition may see the word "tree" as an expression of life branching out towards the sky, Sensation simply relates "tree" to the observation in which its previously associated "tree" with, which would in most cases be literally a physical tree in the woods. Intuition uses analogy and symbolism to process the abstract; Sensation uses symbols (words, images, concepts, etc.) representative of physical constructs, using sensory information to understand the world; this makes Sensation more literal and concrete as opposed to Intuition.

Hopefully, again, your noticing the little tension between the two. Both functions work together to process information consumed by the world. These functions are very much distinct in essence but still intermingle there perceptive duties, sharing the work capacity. Some minds will prefer to delegate more responsibility to one function than the other but they are very much two cooperative faculties.

Thinking vs. Feeling

Now, we will go over the Judging functions. To analyze or judge the information we perceive of the world, we use Thinking and Feeling. To put it quite simply, Thinking judges information logically, putting the information under the scrutiny of what is and what isn't, based on rationale; while Feeling judges information ethically or righteously, putting information under the scrutiny of what is right and what is wrong, based on values. Essentially, both functions scrutinize information, the difference lies in the criteria used to discriminate what is true and what is false, what is right and what is wrong.

Due to the nature of Thinking, it's criteria is biased on correctness and precision; judgement that is free from error. While Feeling judges information through emotions, what feels right or wrong, Thinking is unswayed by such personal biases and operates on laws of what actually is. Thinking looks at information almost mathematically, putting that information through a sort of equation: "if all humans are mortal and I am a human, I am therefore a mortal." You could say Thinking strives for accuracy, dissecting information and eliminating it of errors.

Feeling, on the other hand, is biased by morals and justice; what is right and what is wrong; good vs. bad. Feeling is largely influenced by our emotions, as in, how we feel about information. While Thinking judges based on laws of what actually is, Feeling judges based on principles of fairness. Feeling looks at information morally, putting information under the scrutiny of ethics: "is this fair?", "is it right to be treated in such a way?". While Thinking strives for precision and accuracy, Feeling strives for equity and fairness, dissecting information and eliminating it of inappropriate and corrupt beliefs.

Again, you can see, the two Judging functions are very connected. Even attempting to differentiate them through words requires abstractions as the very nature of these functions is to discern the quality of the information.

Sub-Functions

The sub-functions are one of the two ways a function can express itself. As we went over, a function can direct itself towards the outer world, objectively, onto the object (physical reality); or inward towards the inner world, subjectively, towards the subject (the individual). So, you could simply apply this knowledge of expression to the purpose of each function.

Introverted Intuition (Ni): The unconscious perception of information focused on the inner world. Introverted Intuition absorbs information from the world, then processes that information to comprehend the subject. This means that the insights, or the products of Ni, are focused on the subject. Ni unconsciously connects pieces of information on the subject. With the use of symbolism and analogy, Ni paints a picture or forms a vision reflecting the individual, which symbolizes the individuals underlying meaning or purpose. This is why Introverted Intuitive users claim to have a strong vision for themselves (the subject); we define (give meaning to) ones life by establishing what they've done (their purpose) throughout their life. Ni simply envisions the subject with the intent of uncovering this hidden meaning and purpose by laying out an ideal image of ones life.

Extroverted Intuition (Ne): The unconscious perception of information pertaining to the outer world. Extroverted Intuition absorbs information from the world, then processes that information to comprehend the object. This means the insights of Ne are focused on the object, exploring the underlying meaning of the outer world and envisioning the many ways it could be interpreted. This is why Extroverted Intuition users report envisioning all the possible realities, there Intuition is constantly painting a picture of the many possible meanings of the outer world.

Introverted Sensation (Si): The conscious perception of information focused on the inner world. Introverted Sensation absorbs information from the world, then processes that information to understand the subject. While Ni "observes" this subjective information unconsciously, finding meaning through symbolism and analogy, Si observes it with awareness, using the conscious mind to reflect on the individual (the subject). In doing so the information perceived by Si relates to or reflects sensory stimuli, interpreting itself (the subject) through the use sensory or concrete concepts. Due to the concrete nature of Sensation, Si can be seemingly closed minded, because it uses what it knows through routine (sensory stimulation) to understand the subject. This is why Si users are known to be self aware, and nurturing of themselves; the conscious awareness is focused on them, but it focuses on them in a way that is concrete, noticing not an underlying meaning like Ni, but a physical understanding of "what I'm experiencing right now". This allows Si users to be highly aware of there state of mind, body, and overall health.

Extroverted Sensation (Se): The conscious perception of information pertaining to the outer world. Extroverted Sensation absorbs information from the world, then processes that information to understand the object. Se is awareness focused on the world around, physical reality. While Ne explore the many possible underlying meanings of the surrounding world, Se is concrete, perceiving the outer world through the senses, seeing strictly what is tangible. While Ne explains the outer world, Se observes it happening. This is why Se users are notably in the present, what we define as the present moment is what is happening right now in physical reality; Se is fully tuned into this, it's primary goal being to observe the world around the individual, the object, physical reality. Of all the function Extroverted Sensation is the most empirical.

Introverted Thinking (Ti): The inward directed, logical evaluation of perceived information. Focused on the subject, Ti scrutinizes information alongside a subjective criteria. Due to its introverted nature, logic doesn't have to correspond with the outer world as long as it makes sense to the individual (the subject). Since Ti isn't bound by the outer world, it's logic is boundless, having no laws to limit its validity besides those permitted by the subject themselves; this is what makes Ti more theoretical opposed to Te.

Extroverted Thinking (Te): The outward directed, logical evaluation of perceived information. Focused on the object, Te scrutinizes information alongside an objective criteria. Due to its extroverted nature, logic must correspond with the perceived reality (the object). Since Te is bound by the outer world, it's logic must be factual, tangible, and corresponding to physical reality; this is what makes Te functional and practical in the outer world, it's logic is simply within the realms of the outer world.

Introverted Feeling (Fi): The inward directed, ethical evaluation of perceived information. Focused on the subject, Fi scrutinizes information alongside a subjective criteria. Due to it introverted nature, ethics don't have to correspond with the outer world as long as the individual (the subject) feels it is just. Since Fi isn't bounded by the outer world, it's principles are of personal values, not being limited by the social laws existing within the physical world, giving Fi users a sense of self-righteousness.

Extroverted Feeling (Fe): The outward directed, ethical evaluation of perceived information. Focused on the object, Fe scrutinizes information alongside an objective criteria. Due to its extroverted nature, it's ethics must correspond with the perceived reality (the object). Since Fe is bound by physical reality, it's ethics must be universal, harmonious, and corresponding with the social laws existing within the physical world. The harmonious element of Fe is what gives it the attribute of compassion, as it seeks to do what is right for all, being altruistic and nurturing.

Conclusion

My goal in this was to define the functions with as little adherence to the personality traits and characteristics that are commonly associated with them as possible, consequently, shining light on the essence of each individual function. While these definitions may not be perfect, I think it's direction is more accurate than the definitions heavily relying on traits and characteristics that are indirectly associated with each function.

Jung's Functions were created as a tool to further understand personality, which they can to some degree, but I think they're much better suited to further understand the mind in general. Jung's Functions are more of a taxonomic model of the mind than they are a tool for typology. Each function labels an observable mental faculty of the mind, allowing us to better categorize and label the activities of the mind.

Now, the way one perceives and judges the world does affect personality, but that influence is indirect. Still by using the functions for what they are, a taxonomic model of the mind, we can still gain great insight on ourselves and others. In conclusion, the cognitive functions are certainly not a trait typology model, and using it this way can be inaccurate.

One last note: A few times I pointed out that the "tension" in the dichotomy between functions was weak, and these functions that are typical seen as opposing each other actually cooperate and work together to achieve a common goal. This is because the dichotomies are a illusion. A better way to describe the dichotomies would be that they are a creative outlook on the mind to discern and categorize distinct abilities of that mind.

When introducing a dichotomy, for instance, perceiving vs. judging, you create two separate entities that you can explore independent of each other and further define. These dichotomies are what allow us to compartmentalize the mind into 4 (or 8 depending on your perspective) distinct functions. But in reality, the mind is one cohesive whole; while individuals will delegate greater responsibility to certain functions, all the functions work together to achieve the same goal: perceiving, judging, and ultimately understanding the world.

2. Is there any difference of this thread and the thread titled "on the nature of jungian functions"?

3. Extroversion is focused outward onto or towards the object. So, what is the object? In its whole, the object is physical reality and everything that occurs with in it. So, you could say extroversion is bound by the object or physical reality. Due to the nature of extroversion being bound by physical reality (the object), it is consequently limited by the laws of reality:
* Mathematics- numeric value system
Mathematics actually relates more to introverted thinking. The deductive logic associated with forming a proof is more about a subjective feeling that "this makes logical sense / is coherent", as opposed to the Te approach of testing a structure against reality.

4. Originally Posted by Legion
Mathematics actually relates more to introverted thinking. The deductive logic associated with forming a proof is more about a subjective feeling that "this makes logical sense / is coherent", as opposed to the Te approach of testing a structure against reality.
That's accurate and I agree, but I'd add that it can relate to both Ti and Te, depending on the followed approach and the branch: for instance, while in calculus you're creating a model following strict rules, and overall a sense of coherency, try to see the difference with statistics, or combinatorics. However, it's absolutely true that some advanced math branches avoid testing the structure against reality (even if we can actually find them both in chemistry and physics), but rather test it against themselves, other structures, and coherency. I'd be curious about applied maths, though.

I'd say that it's easier to notice this by considering physics. It exactly does what you listed as Te, but the mathematical models behind describe what you listed as Ti.

Well, at least I agree with you for once

5. ## Extroverted Intuition

Extroverted Intuition
Definition
An extroverted intuition is one of the basic of jungian psychological functions that perceives intuition that which shares the extroverted attitude of nature of psychic energy. An intuitive perception is perception that can never be perceived by five senses. A perception that is imperceivable by the five senses. When something is intuitively perceived, it is usually an abstract thing which has no physical presence, so no wonder that it cannnot be heard, seen, smelt, tasted, touched by its very nature by the five senses. The intuition is objective, which means it is free from subjective / person related factor. By objective, it means also the existence of abstract realities perceived intuitively is independent from the subject, meaning the intuitive realities is there even if no one realized it. It means it doesn't need a specific person is to be conscious of it, since it is also perceivable by others and anyone can still have the same perception.

Role is Intutively Perceived

An example of an abstract thing that is intuitively perceived is a role. We can never sensate using five senses the role a person is assigned to, yet a role of a person can be gotten conscious. We can observe the person which a role is assinged to him/her, but we can not observe the role using five senses; We can only intuit it. A role can only be perceived intuitively; It can never be perceived sensatetively. No one can perceive a role using five senses but we can get conscious of it. So,how do we get conscious of it? because of we do not perceive it using five senses, it has to be intuitively perceived. Perceiving that somebody is a student can only be done intuitively. Student is the intuitive perception perceived to the person who study by an intuitor. "A student" is intuitively perceived by the intuitor.

What is A Role
A role is essentially set of rights, obligations, expectations, norms, and behavior that a person must face and fulfill because of being assigned to it. Each role has its own demands. These demands dictates what to expect when in the role. This role is usually used as a work / business identity. This role set relationships with other roles within organization. This role also limits the responsibilities that take on that role. With roles, workers will know who they should contact for, and for what matters they should be contacted for. This role also serves for promotion. For example telling others that you are a painter, which is also a role, has the intention to promote yourself.

This role can be political, bureaucratic. Rights is attached to that role, for example employees are entitled to salaries, fellow are entitled to stipends, workers are entitled to wages, shareholders / company owners are entitled to dividends, profits. This role also limits the actions that are permitted to be carried out. Obligations are inherent in that role too, so that role holders are required to carry out their obligations. For example the teacher must teach. Teaching is a demand or obligation of someone who acts as a teacher.
This role is idealistic in character: "the person assigned to the role is supposed to be this and that." The Role has demmands also. A student is demmanded to study. When the demands cannot be fulfilled, the person can no longer assume that role. After a person is no longer assigned to a role, Who will be next to take the role are sought after to replace the previous one.

The role is only like a mask (persona) that whoever can wear it. It is not the true person himself/herself which can never be imitated by anyone else. People who assume that role can be different, changing, but the rights, demands of work, responsibilities, obligations, authority inherent in that role are the same.

Role as A Choice
People can actually choose which role they want to take. That role can be offered. The role can be also taken; the role can also not be taken.

Role as an Ideal
This role is often used as an ideal to be achieved. For example, being asked to elementary school children, when they grow up, what are their goals? to Be a doctor, engineer, judge, lawyer. All of them are essentially only roles.

When a person is extrovertedly intuitive?
A person is said to be extrovertedly intuitive, when the intuitor is always orientated to the abstract reality e.g a role that is intuitively perceived.

Assigned to Role Can Be Harmful to the Person
The role can be harmful for a person who is assigned to it. The reason why is that the person assinged to it may not have the sufficient psychic energy required to perform all of the norm, the responsibilities, obligation nor can behave as it is supposed to be.Assigned to a role, A person can either force themselves or be forced by authority to behave according to the role but in the end they could get themselves harm because of it.

Glossary
An extroversion is a nature psychic energy dynamics that always place the objective realities higher in value than the subject, so the subject is always orientated to the objective realities.

A psychological functions is called extroverted when it shares the extroverted attitude.
A subject is an agent that takes action to an object. An object is a thing that receives an action from the subject.

6. Originally Posted by Methylene
That's accurate and I agree, but I'd add that it can relate to both Ti and Te, depending on the followed approach and the branch: for instance, while in calculus you're creating a model following strict rules, and overall a sense of coherency, try to see the difference with statistics, or combinatorics. However, it's absolutely true that some advanced math branches avoid testing the structure against reality (even if we can actually find them both in chemistry and physics), but rather test it against themselves, other structures, and coherency. I'd be curious about applied maths, though.

I'd say that it's easier to notice this by considering physics. It exactly does what you listed as Te, but the mathematical models behind describe what you listed as Ti.

Well, at least I agree with you for once
I think the main approach to pure maths is Ne+Ti. Axioms based around abstract objects. INTP is best for more equation heavy stuff, and ENTP when the maths is especially abstract.

Statistics is largely about comparing expections (Fi) with empirical data, often utilising computer-based testing (Te). I've noticed quite a few ENFP stats lecturers, and the data analysis mindset perhaps best matches INTJ, though I was taking a data analysis course which was more NTP based.

Combinatorics was actually my best area of maths, and also number theory (so, discrete maths*). I don't know if that's usually the case for INFJs, but it may be something that Ni can do well in. I don't know why exactly.

Applied maths is quite varied. There can be NTPs, NTJs, but even Si dominants, especially given that some main areas of application include health and finance, which commonly attract ISxJs. Applied maths could perhaps be done by any type, if that type is one which does well in the area which the maths is being applied to.

* by the way, the cognitive functions approach to typology is actually quite similar to discrete maths

7. Originally Posted by Legion
I think the main approach to pure maths is Ne+Ti. Axioms based around abstract objects. INTP is best for more equation heavy stuff, and ENTP when the maths is especially abstract.

Statistics is largely about comparing expections (Fi) with empirical data, often utilising computer-based testing (Te). I've noticed quite a few ENFP stats lecturers, and the data analysis mindset perhaps best matches INTJ, though I was taking a data analysis course which was more NTP based.

Combinatorics was actually my best area of maths, and also number theory (so, discrete maths*). I don't know if that's usually the case for INFJs, but it may be something that Ni can do well in. I don't know why exactly.

Applied maths is quite varied. There can be NTPs, NTJs, but even Si dominants, especially given that some main areas of application include health and finance, which commonly attract ISxJs. Applied maths could perhaps be done by any type, if that type is one which does well in the area which the maths is being applied to.

* by the way, the cognitive functions approach to typology is actually quite similar to discrete maths
In my experience, I was pretty good at calculus 1 and 2 just because I had to reason on pure formulas. Kind of meh with linear algebra, fine with applying statistics but bad at the theoretical part of it. I remember taking a few lessons about discrete maths in high school for a project, but I've removed the most of it from my memory.

My calculus 1 teacher was ISTP, also used to teach calculus 2 for physics students. I liked his approach to the subject, even though he didn't show any signs of Se or Ne, just pure Ti. We got his type after speaking with him about his personal life, lol.
My Analytical chem teacher, who had to also teach us statistics, was xSTJ. I noticed that Ni and Ne doms usually prefer much subjects where they can exploit their visual reasoning (so, in chemistry, organic chem, in physics, matter phys).

8. Role as an intuitive perception example (continued)

An unavoidable role: biological children
There are roles that are unavoidable. We just don't have any choice but to perceive ourselves to be assigned to this role. One of it is a biological child of our parents.
As a child of our parents, which is also a role, We are unable to choose to whom we are born. In fact, We were just introduced that the persons you know now as your parents after you have been born to them. Hence the set of obligations, demands, expectations, norms inherent with the role of a child is to be burdened to us as a child of our parents for our whole life. We don’t have a choice to be a child of our parents, do we? We just could not select, who will be our parents before we are born in this world.

A biological children as a role intutively perceived differ with other role that you can choose to be. A position in a job for example is a role that we can choose to be assigned to, and the employer can also choose who they want hire, hence it is avoidable. When we get tired doing the tasks required of the job, because it may be getting too demanding, too spiritually exhausting, you can always resign and try finding another one. When our boss get dissatisfied with our performance and we are dismissed from a job, we can always try finding another one. When you are no longer in the job, all of the rights, responsibilities, obligations, demmands that are burdening to us in the job will be free from us. We don't have to do it anymore, our previous empolyer do not expect us to do it anymore, and, consequently we are also not get paid any more by our previous employer.
But we can not do so to our parents. We just cannot escape from our role as a biological children to our parents. We just cannot try to be others biological children like we try finding another job within a company. When our parents die, we just cannot propose ourselves to be others biological children.

We just have to face that ourselves are children of our biological parents as our role which is intuitively perceived.
If you could choose to be a biological child of someone else, who would that be?

P.S I use the word biological to differentiate it with adopted, which can be enforced by a state.

9. The psyche with Ne is wearing a “mask” that they are not naturally aware of to conceal their true Self. Psychologically they may need the “mask” to act as the roles demmand. They are obliged to always fulfill the work that is required by the roles. The roles behave as their objective, behavioral identity, which is not really they are but they defend it and they are attempting to able to act as the role demands. The roles may be given to them because of outerworld events. For instances, birth of a son inevitably makes a woman becomes a mother and a man becomes a father. A marriage makes the a man and woman becomes a husband and wife, etc. The father and the mother and the husband and wife are indentified as roles the Ne psyches try to perform as a newly acquired role.
The Mask is the character that attempt to be play as. as a manifestation of Ne outside world identity to their outerworld. However, since the energy that is needed to perform the roles that they play may not be enough for them, that they may not be strong enough to play the outside world role as the role inherently demmands. Since the roles naturally carries a responsibilities inherent with it. It is highly likely that the roles that they try to play as are more than one roles. For example one can be a husband in the house, and also a worker in the other.

Originally Posted by wikipedia
The word "mask" appeared in English in the 1530s, from Middle French masque "covering to hide or guard the face", derived in turn from Italian maschera, from Medieval Latin masca "mask, specter, nightmare".[2] This word is of uncertain origin, perhaps from Arabic maskharah مَسْخَرَۃٌ "buffoon", from the verb sakhira "to ridicule". However, it may also come from Provençal mascarar "to black (the face)" (or the related Catalan mascarar, Old French mascurer). This in turn is of uncertain origin — perhaps from a Germanic source akin to English "mesh", but perhaps from mask- "black", a borrowing from a pre-Indo-European language.[3] One German author claims the word "mask" is originally derived from the Spanish más que la cara (literally, "more than the face" or "added face"), which evolved to "máscara", while the Arabic "maskharat" - referring to the buffoonery which is possible only by disguising the face - would be based on these Spanish roots.[4] Other related forms are Hebrew masecha= "mask"; Arabic maskhara مَسْخَرَ = "he ridiculed, he mocked", masakha مَسَخَ = "he transfomed" (transitive).