astrology has been dumbed down for the masses, traditional astrology as would be used by the type of astrologer actively using humours/temprament type would take a similar approach as follows:
Planetary signs (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn)
possibly something calle dhte hyleg.
Each of the above would be scored vis a vis their weight for that individual chart, scoring is also based on planetary location in relation to the Sun and diurinal and nocternal strenght of each of the planets.
In modern astrology I am 45:45 Water: Earth, with a 5% fire and no air.
Using the traditional approach I have stronger melancoly and secondary Plegmatic.
Humours to Temprament types is well documented, used in ancient medicine dating back to galens day, as with the Elements - all three things align.
As for what modern spin is used by psycologists trying to reinvenet galens methods and retrofit/fudge around their own questionable application of learning, that is a different animal. Jung applied some of the astrological learning directly and sometimes badly.
From an astrological perspective there are 3 or 4 methods of bucketing people used:
Triplicities (being the elements - most relate to humours/temprment types)
Fire - Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius - hot, dry; ardent
Earth - Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn - cold, dry; heavy
Air - Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius - hot, wet; light
Water - Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces - cold, wet; soft
Quadruplcity is a different cateogorisiation indicating the impact of signs:
Cardinal - starters/initiators
Fixed - stablisers/determined, persistant
Mutible - flexible servicing
Interesting that Mutible dominant people were considered not so good in ancient times - as in fickle, inconstant, where as now being flexible is considered a good thing. I don't know the psycological profiling tool but Quads look very like the whole Starter/Initiator and completer finishers etc etc. So again reinventing what was used for many centuries.
When you start overlaying quaruplicies and triplicities togehter you get an all together more complex picture.
The longer in the tooth I get the more I think that modern thinking is simply rebranding of something ancient, but then I have a typical NT love of pulling out history and respinning
As for the jump between temprament and MBTI - I fear the reason there is so many questions is because of a double whammy in bad articulating/dumbign down. In astrology water has been dumbed down to emotions, and that is not true, it is much deeper, it has a stronger reasonance with Intuition than it does with emotion. All people have emotions they are just expressed differently, hence MBTI/PUII giving emo to one specific group seems dumbing down the whole subject of emo.
My point is that I can see from astrology that Choleric/Fire really does related well to NF's desire to champaing and soap box for specific things. It maes sence. And NT's being water born creaters also makes sense however that ones is a lot more difficult to articulate.