6. Holographic thinking
In the theory of intellect the third cognitive form is least investigated: the thinking analytical, negative, inductive. It possess the [sotsionicheskie] types FL ([SLE]), LI (Leahs), IR ([IEE]), RF ([ESI]). Code name of this intellectual style - holographic, or [polnoopisatelnoe] thinking. Term originates from the Ancient Greek words of holos - entire, whole and grapho - I write. As the base of this designation served the capability of holographers for the very tight packing of information according to the method “similar in similar”.
As statics holographers reach grow prettier the clearness of thought, as [negativisty] they periodically turn the object of thought by opposite side, and as [involyutory] spasmodically change foreshortening - the angle of examination or the criterion of judgment.
This intellectual technology has much in common with holographic principle in physics. Hologram (optical) - this is the statically fixed picture of the two-beam interference of light - supporting and reflected, that go from one source. Holographic technology makes it possible to obtain the volumetric image of object. Hologram itself is the totality of strips and spots, in no way not similar to the imprinted object. In it prove to be superimposed to each other two separate light beams, this occurring so that each part of the hologram it bears information about entire volume.
Thus, due to the mental imposition of several projections of one and the same object holographers achieve the effect of capacity. For this they look through the image and is selected the necessary distance of examination. Holographic thinking the following grammatical bonds attend: “or - or”, “or- or”, “from one side, from other side”. It actively uses principle of menu, free election of the point of view. Holographic approximation - this successive approximation to a purpose or the removal from it, accompanied by the change of foreshortenings. In the process of holographing as if sharp focusing is accomplished.
Holographic thinking has the characteristic skeletal- gripping, penetrating, “X-ray” nature. It without the regret intercepts details, nuances. General, completely convoluted idea about the object gives. Take for an example two orthogonal sections of cylinder. Horizontal section looks like circle, and vertical - as rectangle. Two different manifestations of united with their combination in the mind give passage to the higher logical level of understanding object.
So it thinks FL ([SLE]) in combat. Analyzing situation, it simplifies it to two-three projections (frontal, from the flank, from the rear), but rapidly it leaves to the higher level of understanding. LI (Leahs) it convexly grips problem from the alternative sides, mentally turning situation around its semantic axes. RF ([ESI]), first drawing near, then moving away man, seemingly it probes it from the different sides, intercepting people, which it can bring. IR ([IEE]) it recovers the concealed, alternative motives of man, seemingly is built its [psikhologichesuyu] “hologram”.
The major advantages of holographic thinking are such. First, [mnogorakursnost]. Due to this, as has already been spoken, are reached convexity, the completeness of description, [kholistichnost]. In the second place, it values simplicity and clearness. It avoids pretentiousness, “[navorotov]”. Are especially effective holographers in the crisis situations, when it is necessary to rapidly make decision and there is no time to the weighing of all components.
An explicit deficiency in this style of thinking in the fact that it too rough, does not pay the adequate consideration to the details, which become significant, when process proceeds exactly. It is difficult to unpack its information products. It seems strangers that in them be absent the intermediate components, which must ensure connectedness.
On Aristotle, holographic thinking corresponds to explanation with the aid of the structural, or shaping reasons. Aristotle called structure form. If we return ourselves for its example with the sculptor, then the reason for sculpture occurs the form concealed in it, which the sculptor of altogether only frees, intercepting the excess pieces of marble.
The vague ideas of the holographic content expressed Leibnitz in his “[Monadologii]”. Its monad, in which as in the miniature is reflected entire world order, greatly resembles hologram. Systematically biologists, who were attempting themselves to understand the reason for stability in nature, turned themselves to it. As a result of the interrelations of living and inanimate nature, which appear in the specific territory, are formed the biogeocenosis, or ecosystems. Ecosystems, first of all, are characterized by [samotozhdestvennostyu] in the time, equilibrium. In them the prolonged co-existence of oppositions without the confluence is observed (synthesis). In such associations the statics, therefore, predominates above the dynamics. In this consists the fundamental law of ecosystem, called homeostasis.
On the base of these ideas more lately was formed the general theory of systems. Austrian biologist l. is considered as its ancestor. von Bertalanffy, who introduced the concept of the open system - such, which is exchanged with the medium substance, energy and information and due to this resists disorganization.
If determinists explain the behavior of the system through the component parts and the connections between them, then holographers find in it the new qualities, which are described by the additional combinatory signs, which in no way escape from its internal structure. Therefore holographic paradigm in a general manner can be named the system- ecological picture of peace.
Contemporary ideology “of green” - the absolutization of this thinking. This on no account means that the ideologists of this motion - holographic types. The technology of thinking and the system of the proclaimed views must not coincide! The manifestation of one style of thinking through another is the absolutely typical case. As a good example serve the books “quantum” psychologist a. Wilson, in which dialectical- algorithmic form is filled by the [mnogogorakursnym], holographic content [of 5].
To holographic thinking corresponds the steady, [nezombiruemaya] psyche. You will compare, for example, the programmability of psyche [LSI] and involutional- specular to it [SLE]. As practice indicates, the degree of resistibility to psychological intrusion from without latter is much higher. But how this is explained? - By the durable cognitive body, on which it [zizhdetsya]. By [polnookhvatnostyu], which gives periodic change of the point of view to the object. By good balance between the immune and nervous systems, and also the basic sensory organs.
In the neuro- linguistic programming this principle is used in the technology, which is called [refreyming]. [Refreyming] - this is a change in the framework, in the range which is received one or other event or another. If we mentally place customary object into the unusual medium, then the sense of entire situation will change. Present to itself, for example, tiger first in the jungle, then in the cell of zoo, then on the threshold of your apartment. Standardly [sotsionicheskiy] type is described as submerged in its “club”. But if we move it in to [kvadru]? But if it does prove to be among the types with the opposite style of thinking? This number can be unlimitedly continued.
With the aid of [refreyminga] it is possible to glance at that becoming familiar by fresh view. The type of the psyche of man, who comes running to this technology, in this case is, of course, constant, changes only relation to the object of attention. Gain from this method, first of all, in the fact that new vision emphasizes those sides of situation, which previously were underestimated, it makes it possible to find the new resources of increase, enlarges the selection available to you.
By the physical, full-scale model of multi-foreshortening intellect is hologram - imposition of several images in such a way that each of them is evident only during the examination at the specific angle. The replacement of pictures occurs spasmodically. In this case changes not system itself, but only its priorities. The multicriteriality, which makes it possible to work with the complex system so realizes as with a number of simple.
One additional full-scale prototype of holographic thinking - [fraktalnye] objects. They are opened by mathematician b. [Mandelbrotom] in the 70's of past century. Geometrically [fraktaly] - this of figure with the washed away outlines, that possess self-similar internal structure. For example, tree, snowflake, coastline T. p. Repeated internal investments according to the principle of matryoshka are characteristic for them. As in the hologram, the small fragment of [fraktala] contains information about entire [fraktale]. Part occurs always structurally it is similar to whole.
[Sotsionicheskie] objects are such [fraktaly]. Hence my holographic concept of individual as the systems of the types, inserted in each other . It disputes with the ruling flat [sotsionikoy], which defend people, which are guided by reductionistic thinking.
7. Vortex thinking
Fourth cognitive style: the thinking is synthetic, is positive, inductive. In these forms the thinking flows ES ([ESE]), SP ([SLI]), PT ([LIE]) and TE ([IEI]). Most suitable name of this thinking - vortex, or synergetic.
Synergetics - is the science about how order is born of chaos. Word “synergy” in the transfer from the Ancient Greek indicates the matched actions. At present the term of synergist continues to be discussed. In its western sources they name theory of chaos or nonlinear dynamics . It is for our purposes important to know that it is occupied by the so-called dissipative structures - nonequilibrium, nonlinear, unsteady.
As the dynamics synergetics think mobilely, with the tints of one thought into another as the positivists they go to one point of attraction as [involyutory] they frequently turn backwards, jump over to the previous level, which displaces the flow of their thoughts like the vortex or changing its outlines cloud.
TE ([IEI]) as if in the kaleidoscope sees the whimsical, poured pictures - first floating, then moving away themselves. PT ([LIE]) it thinks very experimentally: many versions quickly sort out in the head and will test them to the practical fitness. ES ([ESE]) it initiates social processes, leaving after itself the train of small emotional turbulence. Thoughts “swarm” in its head, displacing each other. SP ([SLI]) as “it lies at the drift” and awaits tailwind. But as soon as situation becomes favorable, self-organizing begins - its thinking rapidly is started, twisting incoming information, the most and least successful versions of actions are separated.
Characteristic “vortex” indicates that self-organizing, that moves similarly to vortex. Actually flows as the rapid sorting of versions, their approval and subsequent sifting of those, which do not give result. At its basis lies [ispytatelnost] - advance to the purpose through the tests and the errors. It it is possible to in a sense compare with the experiment in the laboratory, which is the brain of man.
First advantage of vortex thinking - liveliness and naturalness. It seemingly imitates those processes, which actually flow in nature. Its another advantage - faith in the success, to [vezuchest]. Synergists do not confuse temporary failures and current errors. They undertake attempt after the attempt, until success finally comes to them.
The greatest deficiency in this thinking in the fact that the intellectual search goes blindly, and means, uneconomically. One additional difficulty - its chaos, spontaneity. Synergetic intellect is the certain similarity of chain reaction, which untwists itself. In this case the mechanism of the positive feedback operates: if we in time do not stop ourselves, then the concentration of efforts at first leads to the explosion, and then to slow cooling.
Synergetic intellect explains phenomena with the aid of the substantive reasons. Substance itself (substance, substratum) in view of natural motion generates phenomenon. Based on the example of Aristotle, the material reason for sculpture - this is the chunk of marble, from which it was made.
Vortex thinking was designed into the independent paradigm and was estimated [sotsiumom] on the merit later than all, although it the closest to the natural phenomena. It is known that under the natural conditions all processes proceed as rotations. In the free economy, for example, acts “invisible hand of the market” For [a].[Smita]: occur cyclic demand and supply fluctuations, which generate the natural price of goods.
Studying biological evolution, [Ch].[Darvin] opened, that its source is the struggle for existence and survival of the most fitted out organisms. The main engine of this “evolution” exactly involution, since, in the first place, the focus of events displaces by the charge variation and, in the second place, there are no intermediate it is sectional between the forms, they appear not smoothly, but abruptly.
Actually, biological self-organizing begins from the mutations - sudden, unpredictable change in the genetic material. This is strictly the involution, which generates pulsatory chaos, whereas fastening and circulation of useful mutations - this already action of evolution.
To strengthen in Darwinism [invotendentsiyu], the so-called concept of intermittent equilibrium attempts to emphasize the discontinuity of the development of nature. Its authors Gould [Eldridzh] proceed from the fact that smoothly-step by step changes of the forms in the natural conditions are impossible. In order to survive, are necessary simultaneously all organs in running order. It does not occur the essences, in which be present the [poluplavniki]- half wings, [polupaltsy]-[polukopyta], etc According to this theory the lifetime of form is divided into two very unequal on the duration stages. The first stage - this [stazis], when long time nothing essential occurs with the form. And the second period - moment of the break, when form very rapidly is converted into another form, or dies out.
In the 20th century, as I already noted, vortex principle again opened and it took for the armament of synergist. Motto of synergetics - order through the fluctuations. Fluctuations (local disturbances of system) are the analog of biological mutations. Order in the chaotic development of the complex sociopsychological systems of [sotsionika] it grasped through the law of the removability of [kvadr]. However, it should not be forgotten that in the irreversible removability of [kvadr] there is many involutional sections - explosions, jumps and turnings. Because of this the real, but not theoretical curve of evolution is notched, that loops. By its outlines it resembles the dancing tongues of flame of the burning bonfire.
This style of thinking gives such qualities as endurance, optimism, to psyche. However, the psyche of synergists is nevertheless less steady than in holographers. Synergetics - types partially programmed, but capable of discarding unnatural programs. True, for restoring the normal mental life to them is necessary determined, and sometimes also the continuance of tests and errors. Vital adversities, the cessation of customary forward movement badly affects their thinking. The regularity operates: the lower the speed, the worse [samoupravlyaemost] as during control of aircraft. If the pressure of counter air to the aerodynamic controllers weakens, aircraft much more badly obeys them.
Best countermeasure in similar situations - positive self-programming. It consists in the forcing back of the disturbing thoughts to the background and their dissolution in the positive scenario. TE ([IEI]) before the sleep it visualizes pleasant picture and it removes thus the alarming experiences of day. PT ([LIE]) in the imagination it sketches the desired purpose in all details and as the positivist in the course of time it leaves to the necessary people and the resources. ES ([ESE]) simply he does not think about the errors of the past, and its mood is improved by itself. SP ([SLI]) places not the first place the positive version of the course of events and he tries to grasp the moment, when it is possible to approach its realization.
Frequently they forget, that synergetic component of development makes extended forecasts hopeless. American meteorologist [E].[Lorents] descriptively named this phenomenon by the effect of the butterfly. The butterfly, that waved wings in some state of America, can with the specific confluence of circumstances cause hurricane somewhere in Indonesia. Complex nonlinear phenomena are not predicted, because tiny initial influences lead with time to the enormous consequences. In the usual life the same phenomenon is called the effect of dominoes. The initial fall of the first bone successfully entails a catastrophic drop in entire number. The initial actions, whose accomplishment occurs on your will, are determined, which of the scenarios will be neglected - pessimistic or optimistic.
This type of thinking reflects the formed now synergetic picture of peace. Within the framework this paradigm in XVIII century arose Kant- Laplace hypothesis about the vortex origin of the sun and planets from the cosmic dust.
Synergetic paradigm is directed against [kreatsionizma]. The appearance of complex systems it explains by procreation, but not by external creation. Here is a characteristic example from the history of science. Biochemist [A].[I].[Oparin]'s hypothesis about the procreation of life from the inanimate material - primary “bouillon” in the early stages of existence of the Earth in many respects confirmed the famous experiment of Stanley Miller, executed in 1953.
Strictly within the framework synergetic paradigm presents his world view academician n. Amoses. In his opinion, “the evolution of peace is explained by self-organizing structures… miracles are possible, but practical value they do not have ". It is sincerely convinced that material can be recreated in the computer models.
Synergetics recognizes the decisive role of the case and free will at the transitional moments of history. Therefore the synergetically disposed scientists examine the alternatives of historical events. In particular, English historian A. Toynbee did model this version of the flow of antique history - if Alexander Macedonian did not die (pessimistic version), how was developed peace then (optimistic version)?
Full-scale model of synergetic thinking - turbulent flow. Turbulent is called this fluid flow or gas, in which occurs the strong mixing of its moving layers. The behavior of this flow cannot be predicted. The laminar phase of flow preceding turbulence is subordinated to clear regularity and corresponds to cause-effect thinking.
For the mathematical simulation of the natural processes of increase the exponential functions usually are used. Such functions describe not the arithmetical, but geometric progression of values. Logistic (S- descriptive) curve especially frequently for the dynamic simulation is drawn. It compulsorily concludes with the section of saturation. This means that self-organizing is not omnipotent: after reaching some limit, it exhausts its pulse of motion. It is further necessary either to yield its place for external organization or to venture the new center of self-organizing. Synergetic types select, of course, second.
Synergetically, taking into account involution the process of generation, increase and loss of ethnoses l. is explained. N. [Gumilev].
Ethnic system dictates the rules of selection of the specific behavior of people. Personalities -[passionarii] (cranks, [otshchepentsy], which think differently…) they ensure society with diverse mutations. Social system holds in control them until it weakens for any reasons (economic crisis, internal wars, satiety with the comforts, etc). After this, the energy of new will baste the become decrepit system and it begins energetically to be developed at its place. But sooner or later it will age itself and forced will be yield place for the sequential alternative system ripened in its depths and T. d.
This thinking most difficultly is given to people with the algorithmic comprehension of reality, since in them to free election and to the game of the case oppose teleology, fate, special role of programmer, etc When synergetics speak about the concealed order in chaos, they, if we translate their words to the language of [sotsioniki], they establish that the system- holographic thinking, which recovers the convoluted ordering structures, is dual to the chaotic- the vortex.