gokartride, there's so much in your post I could comment on.
Your remarks concerning thought processes being like at sea, having to navigate through "fixed points" is almost exactly what I often say - only I use land-based references. And "connect the dots" is also a phrase I commonly use as well in regards to my thinking processes.
And the reference to "pure" reason being insanity is on the mark. Chesterton often referred to himself as a "complete thinker", a man who used his reason along with his other attributes.
In fact here's one excerpt from Orthodoxy explaining this:
"Mysticism keeps men sane. As long as you have mystery you have health; when you destroy mystery you create morbidity. The ordinary man has always been sane because the ordinary man has always been a mystic. He has permitted the twilight. He has always had one foot in earth and the other in fairyland. He has always left himself free to doubt his gods; but (unlike the agnostic of to-day) free also to believe in them. He has always cared more for truth than for consistency. If he saw two truths that seemed to contradict each other, he would take the two truths and the contradiction along with them. His spiritual sight is stereoscopic, like his physical sight: he sees two different pictures at once and yet sees all the better for that. Thus he has always believed that there was such a thing as fate, but such a thing as free will also. Thus he believed that children were indeed the kingdom of heaven, but nevertheless ought to be obedient to the kingdom of earth. He admired youth because it was young and age because it was not. It is exactly this balance of apparent contradictions that has been the whole buoyancy of the healthy man. The whole secret of mysticism is this: that man can understand everything by the help of what he does not understand. The morbid logician seeks to make everything lucid, and succeeds in making everything mysterious. The mystic allows one thing to be mysterious, and everything else becomes lucid. The determinist makes the theory of causation quite clear, and then finds that he cannot say "if you please" to the housemaid. The Christian permits free will to remain a sacred mystery; but because of this his relations with the housemaid become of a sparkling and crystal clearness. He puts the seed of dogma in a central darkness; but it branches forth in all directions with abounding natural health."I highlighted those particular sentences because I think they hit the INFJ perspective right on the head of the nail. I always get the impression of having one foot in the realm of logic and another in the realm of "fairyland". And paradox is a key component of my line of thought.
The notion of life and the universe being an endless mystery fascinates me to no end, the notion that there are somethings we can never fully understand. Quite a contrast to our INTJ cousins, as was mentioned in recently in one thread, who constantly see life more as a problem.
Interestingly enough, in a discussion w/Liason, I compared my style of argumentation as being more "mystical" in style to the more seemingly "analytical" style of INTJs.
Sorry if I'm rabbling on here. I'll end it here.