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  1. #91
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    Do we live in a universe that expands forever or one in which there is an infinite set of cycles? There are ways to find out, by making an accurate census of the total amount of matter in the universe, or by seeing to the edge of the cosmos. By understanding the structure and the redshift of the most distant quasars it may be possible to see whether the expansion of the universe was faster billions of years ago, whether the expansion is slowing down, whether the universe will one day collapse. To answer these questions, what is the nature of redshift, quasars, and stars?

  2. #92
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    A receding source is seen as red-shifted, which means the wavelengths are made longer. An approaching source is seen as blue-shifted, meaning the wavelengths are made shorter. The Doppler Effect is one of the keys to cosmology. An example is sound. Sound is a succession of waves in air, a crest and a trough, a crest and a trough. The closer together the waves are, the higher the frequency or pitch, and the farther apart the waves are, the lower the pitch. Light is also a wave. Unlike sound, it travels perfectly well through a vacuum. The Doppler Effect works here as well.

  3. #93
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    In considering the quasars, we confront profound mysteries. Whatever the cause of a quasar explosion, one thing is clear, that such a violent event must produce untold havoc. In every quasar explosion millions of worlds, some with life and the intelligence to understand what is happening, may be utterly destroyed. The study of the galaxies reveals a universal order and beauty. It also shows us chaotic violence on a scale hitherto undreamt of. That we live in a universe which permits life is remarkable. That we live in one that destroys galaxies and stars and worlds is also remarkable. The universe seems neither benign nor hostile, but rather merely indifferent to the concerns of such puny creatures as us.

  4. #94
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    A star is a delicate balancing act between gravity, crushing the star into oblivion and fusion, the nuclear force blowing a star apart with a force of trillions of hydrogen bombs. A star then matures and ages as it exhausts its nuclear fuel. As stars continually fuse increasingly heavier elements, eventually we reach iron and the star cannot extract any more energy, thereby collapsing. The result from the tremendous heat of collapse is a supernova. The star rips apart and seeds throughout interstellar space. The star formation process is reignited. The vast quantities of the iron of the solar system must be the constituents of an ancient supernova, thus we reach an inescapable conclusion, that the heavy elements in our body were synthesized in a supernova before our sun was created. If a star is 10 to 50 times larger than our sun, gravity will squeeze it into a neutron star. Without fusion to counterbalance gravity, the star will collapse into a black hole, with no possibility of escape. Those who fall within a black hole would encounter a mirror universe on the other side of space-time. How could black holes connect us to alien universes?

  5. #95
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    Consider the possibilities of wormholes to get from one place in the universe to another without covering the intervening distance through a black hole. We can imagine these wormholes as tubes running through a 4th physical dimension. Must wormholes always hook up with another place in our universe? Is it just possible that wormholes connect with other universes, places that would otherwise be forever inaccessible to us? For all we know, there may be many other universes. Perhaps they are, in some sense, nested within one another. Indeed, these connections we could have with other universes could be our only escape route from our otherwise inevitable demise as the universe dies, in fire or ice. How do Einstein and his theory of relativity come into play in this scenario?

  6. #96
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    In the general theory of relativity, developed by Albert Einstein, there is a possibility that we could create and maintain wormholes, little tubes that connect different region of space-time. If so, we might be able to use them for rapid travel back in time. From his theory came the development of a model called the Einstein-Rosen Bridge, a tunnel that briefly opens up between 2 separate black holes, but quickly pinches off and closes. To avoid utter annihilation, one would need to harness perhaps the greatest energies in the universe, such as negative matter, to keep such a portal stable and open. Just as matter and energy can come in positive and negative forms, so can electric charges. How do these opposites manifest in electromagnetism and move this great force into causation?

  7. #97
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    Electrostatic effects are caused by the attraction and repulsion of electrically charged objects, the same kind of interaction that happens with magnets. Magnets and electric charges emanate disembodies forces. These remote forces actively push electrical objects together, or pull them apart. Static, electric, and magnetic effects are those emanating from stationary charges or magnets. In an electric current, by contrast, the electricity is continually moving, flowing like water molecules in a river. Similarly, you have to move a magnet in order to induce an electric current in a nearby loop of wire. Michael Faraday imagined the effects of magnets as magnetizing or polarizing the surrounding space, filling it up with an invisible pattern of curved lines of force. The magnetized space was the field, and Faraday imagined the magnetic force was continually through the field along the invisible lines of force. When any other magnet is placed by it, it immediately feels the effects of this continual emanation of force. Faraday also imagined that the number of lines of force in any given region gives a measure of the force in that region, at the poles of the magnet, where there are more lines of force than at the sides. In Coulomb’s Law of electrostatic force, any 2 small objects, each charged with static electricity, exert an equal and opposite force on each other that has the same pattern as Newton’s law, where every action has an equal and opposite reaction. These universal laws of pole shifting can even be applied to the very large, where every 26,000 years our sun aligns with the Milky Way, possibly causing the North and South poles of the Earth to shift, generating massive earthquakes and colossal deluges, the Earth possibly even being bombarded with intense solar storms as sunspot activity increases. This may just be the beginning.

  8. #98
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    Have you ever read L. Ron Hubbard?

  9. #99
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    Quote Originally Posted by Ginkgo View Post
    Have you ever read L. Ron Hubbard?
    No. Why should I read him?

  10. #100
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    Quote Originally Posted by RaptorWizard View Post
    No. Why should I read him?
    You should read him. You want to.

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