There is some research on this topic. Here's a link for typing children. I think it is pretty accurate. Most children have a disposition from an early age of EJ, EP, IJ, and IP. This intuitively makes sense to me because I remember my ENFJ friend growing up trying to take charge, while I was quiet and just wanted to play with toys by myself.
If you look at Piaget's Theory of cognitive development our psyche is in the fully operational stage around puberty, which is around the age of twelve. According to our modern definition of intuition, it is not fully formed until then.
I have my doubts whether it is so straightforward that the first cognitive process develops first and the second remains in a sort of limbo phase. It's probably a bit more ephemeral than that.