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  1. #41
    Senior Member Lateralus's Avatar
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    Want some more?

    http://homepages.indiana.edu/news/pa...mal/13911.html

    Conventional wisdom holds that supporters of suicide bombers are people with low educational attainment and income, so investments in education and economic development should reduce support for such attacks. But a study by two Indiana University faculty members raises questions about that approach.

    In an analysis of public opinion data from six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings, M. Najeeb Shafiq and Abdulkader H. Sinno show that the relationship of education and income levels to support for suicide bombing is complicated at best. Support for bombings and the influence of education and income vary greatly from one country to another; and attitudes differ significantly by whether the attacks target civilians in one's own country or foreign militaries.

    Shafiq is an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in the School of Education. Sinno is an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science in the College of Arts and Sciences. They say the study, published in the February 2010 issue of the Journal of Conflict Resolution, points to the need for carefully developed policies to address terrorism and suicide attacks.

    "Each country is different, and the attitudes are different depending on the targets," Shafiq said. "By just asking about suicide bombing, you're not likely to get a very useful sense of what people think."

    The study, "Education, Income and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries," relies on detailed data collected in 2005 for the Pew Global Attitudes Project. It examines attitudes in Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan and Turkey, which have been hit by suicide bombings in recent years. Along with many other questions, the Pew survey asked if suicide bombings were often, sometimes, rarely or never justified, both when carried out "against civilian targets" and "against Americans and other Westerners in Iraq."

    Generally speaking, the study found that people who were more highly educated were more strongly opposed to suicide bombings targeting civilians in their own countries. But support for suicide bombings against foreign targets tended to be consistent across education levels. The study also found that political dissatisfaction was a factor in respondents' attitudes, with those who felt that Islam was "under threat" more likely to support suicide bombing.

    Shafiq and Sinno introduce a conceptual model to explain how education and income interact to affect support for suicide bombing. According to the model, education should reduce support for suicide bombing by instilling values and skills that provide for peaceful resolution of conflict. Higher income should discourage support for suicide bombing because wealthy people are likely to be satisfied with life and not believe that drastic measures are needed to effect change.

    But education and income can also cause people to be more politically engaged and, in some cases, dissatisfied with government policies. The model shows that such political dissatisfaction moderates the extent to which education and income reduce support for suicide bombing.

    The study provides some support for the findings of Princeton economist Alan Krueger, whose 2007 book What Makes a Terrorist argued that education and income were not related to support for terrorism. "At the same time," Shafiq and Sinno write, "this study reveals that the effect of education and income on attitudes depends on the country and the target of suicide bombings. Therefore, this study draws attention to the difficulty of making generalizations about the relationship between educational attainment, income, and support for suicide bombing across Muslim countries."

    Shafiq and Sinno make two policy recommendations:

    Continued expansion of education should be supported, along with the adoption of peace education that discourages support for suicide bombing. The purpose is to introduce students to tactics that involve less suffering and damage to society.
    Governments of Muslim countries, the U.S. and other Western states should adopt policies that respect the dignity, welfare, interests and lives of Muslims, including support for trade, economic integration and cooperative security.
    "We grow up thinking that beliefs are something to be proud of, but they're really nothing but opinions one refuses to reconsider. Beliefs are easy. The stronger your beliefs are, the less open you are to growth and wisdom, because "strength of belief" is only the intensity with which you resist questioning yourself. As soon as you are proud of a belief, as soon as you think it adds something to who you are, then you've made it a part of your ego."

  2. #42
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lateralus View Post
    These studies only show that support of suicide bombing as a method is not correlated to socio-economic factors such wealth and education. Please, give us some insight into how this make you leap to the conclusion that Islam as a religion is more extreme than Christianity? You're saying that there is something inherently radicalizing about Islam - this is not what the studies are concluding. Did you consider that, if Islam was removed from the equation, these people would simply find something else which is tied to their cultural identity and kill themselves over this?

    From Pew:

    First, the 2005 poll finds support for terrorism on the decline ...
    Is Islam on a decline in these countries as well?

  3. #43
    Senior Member Lateralus's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by SmileyMan View Post
    These studies only show that support of suicide bombing as a method is not correlated to socio-economic factors such wealth and education.
    Right, and that's what I was responding to in Metamorphosis' post.

    Please, give us some insight into how this make you leap to the conclusion that Islam as a religion is more extreme than Christianity? You're saying that there is something inherently radicalizing about Islam - this is not what the studies are concluding. Did you consider that, if Islam was removed from the equation, these people would simply find something else which is tied to their cultural identity and kill themselves over this?
    Islam is inherently different from Christianity in that it is explicitly a political system. Christianity is not explicitly political. This distinction is very important. Muslims, as a group, view political threats (particularly from the West) as being threats to Islam because they see no distinction between politics and religion.

    Is Islam on a decline in these countries as well?
    I'm sure there are a myriad of answers to this question. One answer could be that the perceived threats to Islam (we might call them political or military threats) have declined. Another answer could be that people are tiring of the suicide bombing because most of the victims are other Muslims.
    "We grow up thinking that beliefs are something to be proud of, but they're really nothing but opinions one refuses to reconsider. Beliefs are easy. The stronger your beliefs are, the less open you are to growth and wisdom, because "strength of belief" is only the intensity with which you resist questioning yourself. As soon as you are proud of a belief, as soon as you think it adds something to who you are, then you've made it a part of your ego."

  4. #44
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    Quote Originally Posted by SmileyMan View Post
    Please, give us some insight into how this make you leap to the conclusion that Islam as a religion is more extreme than Christianity?
    Perhaps the fact that Muhammad was a warlord, while Jesus Christ was a hippie.

  5. #45
    my floof is luxury Wind Up Rex's Avatar
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    In case anyone was curious, this is the movie that everyone is so upset over.



    Honestly, the antics of an Ashton Kutcher knock-off Brohammad and co. would be hysterical if you didn't know people had actually died over this bullshit.
    And so long as you haven’t experienced this: to die and so to grow,
    you are only a troubled guest on the dark earth

  6. #46
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    Quote Originally Posted by Wind-Up Rex View Post
    In case anyone was curious, this is the movie that everyone is so upset over.



    Honestly, the antics of an Ashton Kutcher knock-off Brohammad and co. would be hysterical if you didn't know people had actually died over this bullshit.
    Oh, that's so over the line, Rex.

    Now you're responsible for the riots.

  7. #47
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    Quote Originally Posted by Zarathustra View Post
    Perhaps the fact that Muhammad was a warlord, while Jesus Christ was a hippie.
    And yet we have the Archtiname of Muhammed:

    The Achtiname of Muhammad, also known as the Covenant or (Holy) Testament (Testamentum) of Muhammad, is a document or ahdname which purports to be a charter or writ ratified by the Prophet Muhammad granting protection and other privileges to the monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai. It is sealed with an imprint representing Muhammad's hand.[1]

    The document claims that the Prophet (570-633) had personally granted by charter the rights and privileges to all Christians "far and near". It consists of several clauses on such topics as the protection of Christians living under Islamic rule as well as pilgrims on their way to monasteries, freedom of worship and movement, freedom to appoint their own judges and to own and maintain their property, exemption from military service and taxes, and the right to protection in war.
    Where is the Christian equivalent of this? Jesus was a brutal religious fanatic; Matthew 10:34 and onwards.

    Luke 19:27:

    ... "But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slaughter them before me.’”
    Quote Originally Posted by Wind-Up Rex View Post
    In case anyone was curious, this is the movie that everyone is so upset over.



    Honestly, the antics of an Ashton Kutcher knock-off Brohammad and co. would be hysterical if you didn't know people had actually died over this bullshit.
    To think that 4 Americans lost their lives over this. I hope justice will be dealt to Nakoula in the form of an ass-pummelling in his prison cell.

  8. #48
    my floof is luxury Wind Up Rex's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Zarathustra View Post
    Oh, that's so over the line, Rex.

    Now you're responsible for the riots.
    And so long as you haven’t experienced this: to die and so to grow,
    you are only a troubled guest on the dark earth

  9. #49
    Senior Member Lateralus's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Zarathustra View Post
    Perhaps the fact that Muhammad was a warlord, while Jesus Christ was a hippie.
    I don't think this is why. Yahweh in the Old Testament was a war god, much like Allah.
    "We grow up thinking that beliefs are something to be proud of, but they're really nothing but opinions one refuses to reconsider. Beliefs are easy. The stronger your beliefs are, the less open you are to growth and wisdom, because "strength of belief" is only the intensity with which you resist questioning yourself. As soon as you are proud of a belief, as soon as you think it adds something to who you are, then you've made it a part of your ego."

  10. #50
    Strongly Ambivalent Ivy's Avatar
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    That movie is terrible.

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