Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission: Implications for the United States | Factsheets | CDC HIV/AIDS
HIVSeveral types of research have documented that male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition by men during penile-vaginal sex. [...] Compared with the dry external skin surface, the inner mucosa of the foreskin has less keratinization (deposition of fibrous protein), a higher density of target cells for HIV infection (Langerhans cells), and is more susceptible to HIV infection than other penile tissue in laboratory studies . The foreskin may also have greater susceptibility to traumatic epithelial disruptions (tears) during intercourse, providing a portal of entry for pathogens, including HIV . In addition, the microenvironment in the preputial sac between the unretracted foreskin and the glans penis may be conducive to viral survival . Finally, the higher rates of sexually transmitted genital ulcerative disease, such as syphilis, observed in uncircumcised men may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection .[...]
Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (vertical transmission).[...]AIDS Prevention - STD Prevention - HIV Prevention - AIDS PreventionThe majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations.[...]The correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of sexual transmission of HIV by about 85%.[...]
Here's my solution to this epidemic:"Condoms are effective in preventing HIV and other STDs."[...]The correct and consistent use of latex condoms during sexual intercourse- vaginal, anal, or oral-can greatly reduce a person’ s risk[...]Laboratory studies show that latex condoms are effective barriers to HIV and other STDs. In addition, several studies provide compelling evidence that latex condoms are highly effective in AIDS prevention when used for every act of intercourse. This protection is most evident in studies of serodiscordant couples; those couples with one positive and one negative partner.[etc...]
Both are far more reasonable.
Also, I would like to mention, the primary root reason as to why this epidemic is going on in sub-saharan Africa, is really it's socio-economic inabilty. MGM, seems to me in this situation, a desperate measure to help curb this insanity. Secondly, most of these surgeries are consentual; I know you know that, but I just wanted to mention it.
Interesting stuff. Although, I am confused as to how MGM lowers the ratio so much when the urethra, instead of the foreskin, is still accessible by the HIV.
That seems... Elegant.