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  1. #1
    Senior Member Survive & Stay Free's Avatar
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    Default Terror and Terrorism

    Off shot from another thread on serial killing, everyone was debating the nature of terror, the working definition that was emerging was that it involved the deliberate targetting of civilians. What does everyone think?

    It can relate to your definition of war, Clausewitz's study of total war during the Napoleonic campaigns indicated that total war involved the mobilisation of complete populations, everyone was participating in the campaign and it was about more than territory or satisfaction, much more, so could even involved what he described as a possible situation of anarchy called lawful, that of arming the entire population.

    The contrast to that is the definition of war provided by Sun Tzu, that of limited warfare, in which opponents conduct war within acknowledged limits, for instance a division between legitimate targets and others such as farmers or servants.

    The Geneva Conventions and other international law and guidelines have been created to recognise that there ought to be limitations on the conduct of war, parameters within which it is conducted, these likewise attempt to recognise that annihilation, genocide and atrocity can not be legitimate means of struggle and warfare.

    Personally I think when it comes to defining terrorism the clue is in the title, the goal is terror, not simply soldiers, guerillas, "volunteers" or irregulars but also governments, criminals or gangsters can act as terrorists, there can even be people who attempt to relate to others in this manner, the psychopaths and sociopaths who arent clever enough to learn a good enough false persona to deploy as their public self.

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    Ghost Monkey Soul Vizconde's Avatar
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    The term "terrorist" is highly pejorative. It has been abused to the point where general mischief and not violence and the threat of violence has been defined as terrorism. It essentially means nothing beyond profanity.

    Now when you say in this thread, the working definition is "deliberate targetting of civilians", it raises the question. "Deliberately targeting the citizens with/of what?" Also what if citizens are just incidental, likely or "collateral damage"? Is there a certain amount of collateral damage that it becomes acceptable before it becomes terrorism? Are Nation states less likely to be guilty of terrorism than private individuals or groups of individuals? If so, why?
    I redact everything I have written or will write on this forum prior to, subsequent with and or after the fact of its writing. For entertainment purposes only and not to be taken seriously nor literally.

    Quote Originally Posted by Edgar View Post
    Spamtar - a strange combination of boorish drunkeness and erudite discussions, or what I call "an Irish academic"

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    Senior Member Survive & Stay Free's Avatar
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    I agree Spamtar, that's why I gave my own definition, the use of terror and the end of terror rather than simply targetting civilians or non-combatants. States are responsible for terror, I think shock and awe is a good example of terror, its about striking fear into the enemy to the point were they think of surrender as the only possible course of action.

    With an enemy which is even more kamikazi than the Japanese at the end of the war when the atomic bomb was dropped its a waste of time but that's the theory anyway.

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    it's tea time! Walking Tourist's Avatar
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    I think that drone bombing is an example of terror. The drones are wildly inaccurate and civilians are killed by bombs dropped from unmanned flying machines. The person programming these drones has no idea of who was killed. I would call this terror by remote control.
    I'm a little teapot, short and stout. Here is my handle and here is my spout. Every time I steam up, I give a shout. Just tip me over and pour me out.

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    Ghost Monkey Soul Vizconde's Avatar
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    Default Chainreaction

    Quote Originally Posted by Lark View Post
    I think shock and awe is a good example of terror...
    Yes at its essence it is a strategy not strictly a person, group or persons or a state. Because it can be so devastating and applied so unexpectedly and grotesquely, like many of the weapons banned by the Geneva Convention, is often frowned on (particularly by the powers that maintain the status quo when individuals or small groups apply it because the status quo is often its primary target/victim and very often when manipulated in such a way...(i.e. burning of the Reichstag) short term beneficiary).

    The ignorance and overreaction from the mindset of the status quo (via solidification or create an up an coming status quo who are next in line) is most often a key element in the purpose of terrorism (i.e. blowing up the Twin Towers was not the primary purpose of the 9-11 terrorist rather the overreaction of the Bush Administration). Part of the chain reaction is many elements attempting to use the terror as propaganda too suddenly and with too much intensity which cause their own chain reactions and create many real and metaphoric explosions which have the effect of one great explosion happening all at once an appearing to come out of nowhere or coming from the most ostentatious source (which gets the ‘credit’).

    The short term panic of the attacks was nothing compared to the chain reaction those attacked caused us and continue to cause us.
    I redact everything I have written or will write on this forum prior to, subsequent with and or after the fact of its writing. For entertainment purposes only and not to be taken seriously nor literally.

    Quote Originally Posted by Edgar View Post
    Spamtar - a strange combination of boorish drunkeness and erudite discussions, or what I call "an Irish academic"

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    Spamtar the problem I've got with a lot of the right on anti-establishment attacks on the concept of Terror is that the actions of super powers ARE less likely to kill me than random grievance guy with a bomb strapped to his back.

    These same super powers have left open and generally keep open avenues for dissent and change which most gun men have not, neither in the groups, among themselves or as a possible alternative or shadow executive.

    Also in the main no one who takes up arms against super powers or the vaguely defined status quo has exhausted all non-violent avenues to begin with, generally because they are not exciting, dont promise heroic status or martyrdom (the Che cult is about martyrdom too, so it was around long before AQ's or Hamas' kamikazis).

    Whether those people are useful idiots, all part of a process whereby the establishment and status quo guarantees its future, reproducing itself year on year is interesting as an abstract talking point but it will not stop the people who wish to terrorise others finding some way to satisfy or channel that need.

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    Artisan Conquerer Halla74's Avatar
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    FROM a recent paper I completed this semester...

    Suicide Terrorism: Trends, Motives, and Techniques
    "Halla"
    December 3, 2009



    Abstract

    The 1983 car bomb attacks in Lebanon against U.S. Marine barracks mark the beginning of the modern use of suicide terror (Bloom, 2005, p. 1, 2). The roots of suicide terror are deep. Suicide terror is neither unique to modern times nor confined to any single region of the world (Bloom, 2005, p. 4). It is also a mistake to assume that only religious groups use suicide terror, as many secular groups are engaged in equivalently lethal campaigns (Bloom, 2005, p. 79).

    Suicide bombing can be defined as a violent, politically motivated attack, carried out in a deliberate state of awareness by a person who blows himself or herself up together with a chosen target (Bloom, 2005, p. 76). In fact, the premeditated certain death of the perpetrator is the precondition for the success of the attack (Bloom, 2005, p. 76). The abuse, maiming, or killing of friends and/or family members by a superior occupying military force can compel ordinary citizens to become a suicide bomber (Silke, 2003). After all factors have been considered, the desired result of suicide terrorism is to force policy change and express political grievance (Jackson, 2005).
    The notions that a broad spectrum of personalities are involved in suicide attacks, and that there is no single personality type that is typically more willing to volunteer for these missions are widely accepted (Silke, 2003, p. 97). Tales of the need to brainwash or indoctrinate people to carry out a suicide attack are seen as ludicrous in the communities where suicide terrorists come from (Kushner, 1996, p. 332). It is thus accurate to extrapolate the following: almost all suicide bombers are volunteers who have chosen to carry out a suicide action even when other (non-fatal) methods of attack were available to them (Kushner, 1996, p. 332). There is no evidence that suicide bombers suffer from psychological disorders or general mental imbalance; surprisingly, their personalities are usually quite stable and unremarkable (Silke, 2003, p. 94).

    This paper summarizes trends, motives, and techniques of suicide attacks waged for purposes of terrorism. Discussion of groups that utilize these methods and relevant information about the attackers themselves is presented. Recommendations for minimizing future suicide terrorist attacks are stated as a conclusion.

    I. Background...

    Thirty two terrorist and guerilla groups in twenty eight countries utilize suicide attacks (Pedahzur, 2006, p.1). Suicide attacks are some of the least costly type of terrorist attacks (Pedahzur, 2006, p.1). As a method of terrorist attack, suicide attacks are the most efficient in achieving the highest number of victims (Pedahzur, 2006, p.1, 2).

    Code:
    Effectiveness of Terrorist Attacks (Pedahzur, 2006, p.2)
    No.	Type of Attack	Average Number of Victims
    1	Shooting	                        3.32
    2	Remote Controlled Explosive	        6.92
    3	Suicide Attack with Explosive Belt	81.48
    4	Suicide Attack Driving a Vehicle	97.81
    Despite their efficacy, terrorists do not always use suicide attacks (Jackson, 2005). Terrorists also vary their selection of victims ranging from soft civilian to military/government targets (Jackson, 2005). Terrorists are highly adaptive and choose particular strategies to suit specific objectives (Jackson, 2005). Terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia are usually against military targets (army bases) and political targets such as embassies (Jackson, 2005). Bombings in Western countries have focused on civilian targets because government buildings and military installations are too well defended (Jackson, 2005). In Iraq, suicide attacks are most often the only real option for insurgents to fight the U.S. military (Jackson, 2005). Recent terrorism against Coalition countries is based on successful historical terrorist campaigns (Jackson, 2005). Terrorism was greatly effective in driving the British out of Palestine and Cyprus, and the French out of Algeria during the era of de-colonization (Jackson, 2005).

    II. Goals:
    Three typical goals of terrorist groups that perform suicide attacks are: (1) national liberation, (2) the expulsion of military occupying forces, and (3) to challenge and/or overthrow moderate Islamic regimes (Pedahzur, 2006, p.4). The moderate Islamic regime most challenged by suicide attacks is the government of Saudi Arabia, which has endured eight attacks in the last decade (Pedahzur, 2006, p.4). Other countries with moderate Islamic governments that have been affected by suicide terror attacks include: (1) Algeria (1995-1998), (2) Morocco (2003), and Turkey (2003) (Pedahzur, 2006, p.3). A specific, secular, and strategic goal held in common by nearly all terrorist groups that perform suicide attacks is to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from territories that the terrorists consider to be their homeland (Pape, 2005, p. 4).



    III. Motivating Factors...
    Data on 462 individual suicide terrorists (involved in actions over the years 1980-2000) clearly refutes the myth that these persons are: (1) young, (2) uneducated, and (3) easily-led social misfits who are inspired by religious fervor and driven by living an alienated life of poverty (Smith, 2005). Honestly, the sheer normality of those who carry out the suicide attacks is frightening; they are normal individuals of their societies (Silke, 2003, 2002). Several mistakes often occur when professionals of varying realms of expertise attempt to identify why a specific individual chose to commit suicide, especially in cases where the individual did so as part of a suicide attack that killed innocent people in the hopes of furthering a political objective (Pape, 2005, p. 171). Even upon detailed analysis of a suicide attacker’s life it is rarely possible to identify a single, key event that compelled them to voluntarily end their lives during the course of a lethal attack on unsuspecting civilians (Pape, 2005, p. 171). It is not impossible for mentally unbalanced or pathological personalities to be present in terrorist organizations, but they are not common (Silke, 2003, p. 32).

    A point misunderstood by non-Muslims is that simply carrying out a suicide attack is not sufficient to make a bomber a martyr; the attack has to be carried out first and foremost for Allah if the suicide terrorist will be allowed to enter paradise (Silke, 2003, p. 102). Attacks carried out for secular reasons, such as creation of a Palestinian homeland or to take revenge against Israelis are considered to have been carried out for secular motives disqualify the suicide terrorist from becoming a martyr (Silke, 2003, p. 102).
    Suicide terrorists are often said to have gone to their deaths smiling (Hoffman, 2003). This is what is known in the Shia Islamic tradition as the bassamat al-farah, or "smile of joy"--prompted by one's impending martyrdom, and is just as prevalent among Sunni terrorists (Hoffman, 2003). An Israeli policeman reported that many people who survived suicide attacks reported that once the suicide bomber was on a bus and realized they were face-to-face with victims, that they smiled and activated their bomb (Hoffman, 2003).

    V. Benefits to Organizations that Use Suicide Attacks:
    Terrorist leaders know that suicide attacks offer tremendous tactical advantages against infinitely superior enemies (Jackson, 2005). Suicide attacks are virtually impossible to stop because you cannot threaten a person who is already willing to die (Jackson, 2005). Suicide bombing as a tactic allows militarily limited insurgent groups to: (1) attack military targets that are immune via ordinary strategies, (2) the assassination of prominent leaders, and (3) the indiscriminate attack of large numbers of civilians in order to create generalized fear (Bloom, 2005, p. 77).

    The popularity of suicide attacks is not surprising. Suicide attacks cost no more than $150 to mount considering nuts, bolts, screws, ball bearings, metal shards, or other inexpensive odd bits of broken machinery can be packed together with homemade explosive and then strapped to the body of a terrorist (Hoffman, 2003). The terrorist can then be dispatched to any densely populated public place such as riding a bus, waiting at a train station, eating at a restaurant, shopping at a supermarket or mall, or simply a busy street corner or promenade (Hoffman, 2003). The most difficult aspect of a terrorist operation is the escape plan, which is not needed by a suicide bomber (Hoffman, 2003). Suicide attacks are reliably deadly. According to data from the Rand Corporation, suicide attacks on average kill four times as many people as other terrorist acts (Hoffman, 2003).
    Organizations that use suicide attacks reap multiple benefits on various levels without incurring significant costs (Bloom, 2005, p. 76). Although each operation sacrifices one supporter, it also enables the organization to recruit many more (Bloom, 2005, p. 76). The death of the perpetrator makes it impossible for them to ever recant his/her decision (Bloom, 2005, p. 76). An additional value of suicide bombing is that the perpetrator is also a victim of their own act, which inflicts great moral shame on those the terrorist considered tormentors (Bloom, 2005, p. 77).

    V. Implementations:
    The following steps must be successfully completed in order for a suicide attack to occur: (1) Prepare and train the bomber, (2) assemble intelligence, and (3) obtain professional knowledge necessary to make the explosive device (Pedahzur, 2006, p.2). These complexities are useful in explaining that 95% (301 of 315 attacks in the study period of 1980-2003) of suicide attacks are usually part of an organized campaign, and not of spontaneous individual whim (Pedahzur, 2006, p. 2; Pape, 2005, p. 4).

    Terrorist Organizations that make use of suicide bombing divide the overall labor of the task by skill set: (1) “Quartermasters” obtain explosives and other materials, (2) “Bomb Makers” build the bomb, (3) “Minders” who sequester the bomber in a safe house, (4) “Film Crews” who make a video of the operative, (5) “Reconnaissance Teams” who scout the area in order to pass information onto the handlers, and, finally, (6) the “Handlers” who deliver the bomber as close to the target as possible without being detected (Bloom, 2005, p. 178). Filming of the bomber committing the suicide attack is partly for propaganda, but also to ensure the bomber does not back out (Bloom, 2005, p. 178).



    VI. Summary of Explosives and Suicide Devices:
    Creation of suicide devices encompasses obtaining pre-cursor materials and creation of suicide devices that are appropriate for attacking a specific target, on a specific type of bomber. The variety of materials and techniques available to terrorists is nothing short of terrifying in that deadly weapons can be made out of simple, household materials with the right knowledge and criminal intent. Review of the information below will hopefully solidify the concepts discussed thus far and frame them as a problem that threatens all civilized societies.

    A. Explosives:
    Three of the most common explosives used by terrorists in the manufacture of suicide devices (bombs, belts, braziers, etc.) are (1) TNT (trinitrotoluene) and (2) TATP (triacetone triperoxide) and (3) Acetone peroxide (AP) (Mechanics). Acetone peroxide and TATP are explosives widely available due to the simplicity of their preparation (Mechanics). TNT can be taken out of old mines, obtained from disassembling un-detonated artillery shells from firing ranges, or purchased on the black market (Mechanics).
    Pre-cursor components are available for purchase in any household store without provoking suspicion, items as common as (1) hydrogen peroxide (used for bleaching hair), (2) acetone (used for nail polish removal or as a solvent) (Mechanics). Preparation of acetone peroxide is extremely dangerous (Mechanics). A process known as plastification (cooking) must occur for TATP/AP to be formed as needed when cold, and for better detonation (Mechanics). The plastification of acetone peroxide is a dangerous process in and of itself, and can result in inadvertent detonation; frequently bomb makers are burned, lose fingers/hands/body parts, or killed while practicing their trade (Mechanics).

    Despite its potential lethality for terrorist bomb makers, preparation of acetone peroxide has one definite advantage over other types of explosives (Mechanics). Acetone peroxide cannot be discovered by dogs, even dogs with specialized training in detecting explosives (Mechanics). However, dogs can discover explosives such as ammonal, plastic explosives, and hexogen (Mechanics).

    Although hard to obtain, sometimes terrorists get a hold of C4 or other plastic explosives C4 is significantly stronger than acetone peroxide and TNT (Mechanics). C4 resembles Play Dough in its consistency, making it extremely versatile in that it can make a bomb of almost any form that can be hidden under clothes (Mechanics).

    B. Detonators:
    Creating detonators for home-made explosives is not difficult; a light bulb is the simplest and the most widely available type of detonator (Mechanics). When the light bulb is turned on, the filament (wire) is instantly heated, which detonates the bomb (Mechanics). TNT is stronger than acetone peroxide, but has two serious disadvantages (Mechanics). First, it cannot be plastified in home conditions; second, with TNT real detonators must be used (Mechanics). This is why TNT is much less convenient for use by suicide-bombers (Mechanics).

    C. Shrapnel:
    Common metal items such as ball bearings, nails, nuts, bolts, and scraps of metal can be used as shrapnel in explosive devices (Hoffman, 2003). The inclusion of shrapnel increases the potential killing power of any explosive device substantially (Mechanics). Materials used for shrapnel will most likely vary according to what is available in the region where the suicide device is made.

    D. Suicide Jackets, Vests, and Belts:
    Explosive devices such as vests and belts are probably what most people will think of if asked to conceptualize a suicide device (Suicide Bombs). In simplest terms, when a vest of belt is packed with explosives, packed with shrapnel (nails, screws, bolts, etc.) and armed with a detonator, it can be set off by a suicide bomber at an opportune time for the purpose of killing the target of their choice, usually a dense mass of civilians in a public place (Suicide Bombs). Again, shrapnel increases the number of casualties far beyond that achieved by an explosion alone.

    Explosive belts were introduced by the LTTE (Tigers of Tamil Eelam) of Sri Lanka (Bhattacharji). The first use of a suicide belt was in the assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 (Bhattacharji). Explosive vests are typically larger and bulkier than suicide belts.

    E. Body Cavity Terrorism:
    Al-Asiri, a 23 year-old Saudi Arabian suspected of being a terrorist, arranged a meeting with Prince Nayef, head of the security service in Saudi Arabia in September 2009 (Terrorist hid explosives). He managed to subvert security checks before entering the prince's office by hiding the explosives in his rectum (Terrorist hid explosives). Detonation of the anal explosive device was suspected as an electronic event (Terrorist hid explosives). Prince Nayef, suffered only minor injury to one of his hands, because the terrorist’s body absorbed most of the blast (Terrorist hid explosives). Al-Qaeda later claimed responsibility for the attack (Terrorist hid explosives).

    F. Brazier Bombs:
    In July 2004 the LTTE deployed a female suicide bomber equipped with an explosive brazier, in lieu of an explosive vest or belt (Sri Lanka probing). The bomb exploded as the attacker, a woman in her late twenties, was being searched by two women constables at a police station opposite the US and British diplomatic missions (Sri Lanka probing). No foreigners were killed or wounded in the blast (Sri Lanka probing). The bomber showed two constables her bare midriff to indicate she was not wearing a suicide vest or belt (Sri Lanka probing). Luckily both constables survived the attack but did sustain injuries (Sri Lanka probing). Analysis of the remains of the bomber indicated the explosives were fitted around her chest (Sri Lanka probing).

    G. Shoe Bomb Plot of 2001:
    On December 22, 2001 Richard Colvin Reid, a 6’4”, 200 pound Islamic fundamentalist from the United Kingdom boarded Flight 63 in Paris France, and was flying toward Miami, Florida (Thomas). Reid was wearing shoes loaded with explosives (Thomas). He refused food and drink, much to the dismay of a flight attendant, who had recently been trained in identifying potential hijackers (Thomas).

    After several passengers complained of a smoky smell shortly after delivery of meal service, the flight attendant walked the aisles of the plane to in search of the source of the smell (Thomas). Reid was found sitting alone near window lighting matches (Thomas). After asking him what he was doing, Reid grabbed at her, revealing one shoe in his lap, a fuse leading into the shoe, and a lit match (Thomas). A confrontation ensued. Reid bit and hit two flight attendants, but was eventually subdued by a mob of courageous, angry passengers (Thomas).

    H. Car Bombs:
    Car bombs, or “vehicle borne improvised explosive devices” (VBIEDs) use a vehicle as the container of the device. VBIEDs are of countless designs and configurations, limited only by the varying types of vehicles in the zone selected for an attack (Vehicle). Small cars, large cargo trucks, generators, donkey drawn carts, and ambulances have been used in Iraq during attempted attacks on Coalition Forces and the New Iraqi Government (Vehicle). In general, larger vehicles can carry more explosives, resulting in a greater effect (Vehicle).

    VBIEDs have used amounts of explosives that ranged anywhere from 100lbs to well over 1000 pounds (Vehicle). The explosive charge is often composed of: (1) mortar rounds, (2) rocket motors, (3) rocket warheads, (4) plastic explosives, or (5) artillery rounds (Vehicle). In Iraq, a technique growing in popularity is the use of multiple vehicles during VBIED attacks (Vehicle). The lead vehicle is used as a decoy, and once it is stopped or detained by coalition forces the main VBIED crashes through the crowd and detonates, resulting in many casualties (Vehicle).

    I. 9/11/2001 – Suicide Attacks with Passenger Aircraft:
    Tuesday, 11 September 2001 was a beautiful summer day in the eastern United States (9/11: The Basics). Only a week after Labor Day, the end of summer travel, the beginning of American football season, the start of school and thoughts of autumn were all common thoughts on the minds of Americans (9/11: The Basics). Those innocent dreams were scarred forever as four jets scheduled for transcontinental flights each carrying an average of 20,000 gallons of aviation fuel were hijacked by al Qaeda terrorists (9/11: The Basics). Two jets were used to attack the World Trade Center, one attacked the Pentagon, and a fourth was overtaken by passengers in mid-flight only to be crashed into the ground by the terrorist pilot (9/11: The Basics). The large amounts of fuel on these planes plus impact into a building, added up to creation of lethal bombs (9/11: The Basics).

    Critical statistics of the 9/11 attacks can be quickly reviewed by anyone in order to convey the magnitude of the horror caused by al Qaeda (Statistics and Numbers). There were 2,819 people were killed in the 9/11 attacks, of which 343 were firefighters and paramedics, and 23 were NYPD officers (Statistics and Numbers). A total of 22 U.S. troops were killed in action during Operation Enduring Freedom (Statistics and Numbers). The count of bodies found “intact” was 289, in addition to 19,858 body parts, and 1,717 families got no remains (Statistics and Numbers). Several families were decimated because 1,609 people lost a spouse or partner in the attacks, and 3,051 children lost a parent (Statistics and Numbers). Beyond New Your City, 20 percent of Americans knew someone hurt or killed in the attacks (Statistics and Numbers). There were 300 firefighters were on leave for respiratory problems by January 2002 (Statistics and Numbers). Fires continued to burn an astonishing 99 days after the attack (Statistics and Numbers). The New York Stock Exchange was closed for 6 days, and dropped 684.81 points when it reopened (Statistics and Numbers). U.S. bombing of Afghanistan began 26 days after the 9/11 attack (Statistics and Numbers). Sadly, 1,714 hate crimes were reported to the Council on American-Islamic Relations nationwide between 9/11/2001 and 9/5/2002 (Statistics and Numbers).

    J. Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil (ANFO) Homemade/Roadside Bombs:
    Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) blasting agents are the most manufactured in terms of quantity in the United States (Explosives – ANFO). The industrial uses for these devices are primarily mining and quarrying operations (Explosives – ANFO). For safety reasons the components are generally mixed at or near the desired detonation site (Explosives – ANFO). The mixed product is relatively safe and easily handled and can be poured into drill holes of the object targeted for blasting (Explosives – ANFO). In December of 1956 “Slurry explosives”, a new blasting agent using an unusual mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminum powder, and water were invented (Explosives – ANFO). Blasting agents should be detonated by a primer of high explosive because of their stability (Explosives – ANFO). The addition of an explosive ingredient (such as TNT) re-classifies a blasting agent as an explosive (Explosives – ANFO). Ammonium nitrate- fuel oil has largely replaced dynamites and gelatins in bench blasting; the most widely used dry blasting agent is a mixture of ammonium nitrate prills (porous grains) and fuel oil (Explosives – ANFO).

    Eighty percent of US casualties in Afghanistan are inflicted via use of roadside bombs (Explosives – ANFO). U.S. troops in southern Afghanistan are able to compensate local farmers for ammonium nitrate fertilizer at the rate of $28 per 50 pound bag, which is twice the market value (Explosives – ANFO). Stockpiles of ammonium nitrate fertilizer have been found in the course of the war in Afghanistan (Explosives – ANFO).

    Videos to Check Out - I Used These in My PowerPoint Presentation:

    Car Bomb in Iraq:
    Car bomb in Iraq


    9/11/2001:
    First Plane:
    YouTube - NEW QUALITY SOUND OF FIRST PLANE ATTACK ON 9/11 (HQ Description)

    Second Plane:
    YouTube - Never before seen Video of WTC 9/11 attack

    Collapse:
    YouTube - WTC Collapse Footage 9/11

    Nick Berg Beheading Video (Not for the Faint at Heart - GRAPHIC!):
    The Nick Berg Beheading



    -------

    Again, this is an extract of the full project.

    Alot of material, including the works cited is held back, but can be made available if there is interest.

    Best,

    -Halla
    --------------------
    Type Stats:
    MBTI -> (E) 77.14% | (i) 22.86% ; (S) 60% | (n) 40% ; (T) 72.22% | (f) 27.78% ; (P) 51.43% | (j) 48.57%
    BIG 5 -> Extroversion 77% ; Accommodation 60% ; Orderliness 62% ; Emotional Stability 64% ; Open Mindedness 74%

    Quotes:
    "If somebody asks your MBTI type on a first date, run". -Donna Cecilia
    "Enneagram is psychological underpinnings. Cognitive Functions are mental reasoning and perceptional processes. -Sanjuro

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    Senior Member tinkerbell's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lark View Post
    The Geneva Conventions and other international law and guidelines have been created to recognise that there ought to be limitations on the conduct of war, parameters within which it is conducted, these likewise attempt to recognise that annihilation, genocide and atrocity can not be legitimate means of struggle and warfare.
    .
    A couple of thoughts....one mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighters, especally in non democratic states.

    If a country with a democracy fails to apply the genva convesion then thats a big deal... so much so that I wrote to my MP, Prime Minister and foreign office to complain about the UK involvement in Camp Xray - which was practicing against the geniva convention (and then saying - well they are not really terrorists/sodliers). I was never so livid to be associated to a country that had anything to do with that. Either civilised countries abide by it (and beyond it's absolutely momentum) or they are not civilised).

    It's all well and good to classify people as terrorists if they are not in power within their country but in non democratic states, that may be the only way to proceed.

    There are many ways civilised countries ignore human rights, in Northern Irleand it was the mid 70's before the catholics had one man one vote... clearly not a civilised approach to government, South Africa came later and the Congo will not be civilised in our lifetimes I don't think....

    Countries who have more power than others need to be very careful not to bulldozer their opinions and their culture onto other countries... Cultural sensitivities need to be adhered too even if they are badly understood.

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    Senior Member Survive & Stay Free's Avatar
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    Nice post TB but I'd make a distinction between guerilla warfare and all varieties of armed strugges against illegit authorities and terrorism, the goal of terrorism is to inspire terror, to terrorise.

    Now, perhaps, that accompanies the actions of guerillas, perhaps their enemies within the authorities they attack will grow to fear them, if they're clever, but that is different from deliberating attempting to cause fear as an end in itself.

    This is one of the reasons I think that the application of the terrorist label to many of the religious fundamentalist causes is appropriate, within their established regimes, within their camps, groups and auxiliary organisations the norm is one of fear and terror. Subordinates should be terrified of superiors, its the norm of worship even, ie the relationship presupposed to exist between God and humankind.

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    Senior Member tinkerbell's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lark View Post
    This is one of the reasons I think that the application of the terrorist label to many of the religious fundamentalist causes is appropriate, within their established regimes, within their camps, groups and auxiliary organisations the norm is one of fear and terror. Subordinates should be terrified of superiors, its the norm of worship even, ie the relationship presupposed to exist between God and humankind.
    By those standards anyone with religion is a terrorist.... in Christianity there is a fear of sin or judgment.... breakign gods rules and the likes...

    Anything that controls the masses is usually fear based... so in totalitarian states the most affraid man is the one on top... because the only way they can rule is via fear.

    Power structures always corrupts - man is man after all.

    I think its fair to say that a small fraction of religious groups are tarrotists, and that by all means doens't mean a whole religious group. Almost always it's angry young men.... (I apprecaite there has been some demographic shift of more recent years). Most the the relgions cited within the umbralla of terrorisim are largely peace loving religions, but have a small fraction of angry young men trying to force their beleifs on other people.

    The west is no better, they try and force their values east-wards......

    I think it's difficult to really define terrorists and a homegenous group at all.

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