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  1. #21
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    Quote Originally Posted by Poimandres View Post
    Ultrarevolutionary Omniversalism ~ Hyperdimensional Process Metaphysics Design System

    Translation: A very radical and extreme theory of everything that can expand across everything in existence at all levels of development and alter the dynamics of their evolution.
    Quote Originally Posted by 93JC View Post
    "-ism's in my opinion are not good. A person should not believe in an -ism, he should believe in himself. I quote John Lennon: 'I don't believe in Beatles. I just believe in me.' A good point there. After all, he was The Walrus. I could be The Walrus; I'd still have to bum rides off people."
    .

  2. #22
    Senior Member tinker683's Avatar
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    Holy Bombasim Batman! Pedantry, wall of texts, and nonsense, oh my!

    ETA: RW, I really don't think you really have any idea of what all of this gibberish means
    "The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it."
    ― Woodrow Wilson

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    Emotions
    * Note to Zang – These new tentative (and modifiable) terms are only potential ‘additions’ to augment the original definitions with refined improvements rather than completely replace them.
    Sattva:
    1. Eager – Enthusiastic desire to initiate some sort of activity with minimum standby time.
    2. Bored – Disinterest or displeasure with the present context and current course of events.
    3. Anxious – Intense anticipation of coming events along with any pros or cons they carry.
    4. Bashful – Timid or afraid to confront and engage oneself within situational dynamics.
    5. Rushed – Frenzied haste to approach and run through situations with maximum speed.
    6. Silly – Lacking objective sense or purpose in relation to what others perceive as proper.
    7. Excited – Joyful desire to immerse oneself within something and experience its fullness.
    8. Condescending – Narcissistic attitude about the greatness of oneself in relation to others.
    Rajas:
    1. Angry – Impulse to start confrontations in retaliation against things opposing our wishes.
    2. Annoyed – Disrupting and upsetting the balance in the harmony or wellness of our being.
    3. Cautious – Vigilance of potentially immanent dangers and adapting our actions in accord.
    4. Scared – Fearful to face things perceived as threats or capable of inflicting pain upon us.
    5. Confused – Unaware of the context or not understanding what steps of action to take.
    6. Elated – Pleased with how things are proceeding and the promises they hold in store.
    7. Shocked – Surprise from failing to foresee unexpected events in the unfolding future.
    8. Worried – Afraid things could become worse without being able to withstand the flux.
    Tamas:
    1. Sad – Sorrowful of something and disappointed with how it developed outside our hopes.
    2. Lazy – Unwilling to generate maximum productions and desiring minimum activity.
    3. Calm – Free from all burdens or pressures in the chaos of life and at peace with things.
    4. Lonely – Sadness felt by being disconnected from people we desire to see or contact.
    5. Relieved – Liberated from a fear of potential losses or not getting desired productions.
    6. Shy – Uncomfortable with being around people or easily frightened by new challenges.
    7. Terrified – Afflicted with such extreme fear that one is rendered immobile or goes insane.
    8. Relaxed – Devoid of tension or without worries and able to naturally express the true self.

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    Quote Originally Posted by tinker683 View Post
    Holy Bombasim Batman! Pedantry, wall of texts, and nonsense, oh my!

    ETA: RW, I really don't think you really have any idea of what all of this gibberish means
    And it will take a long time to figure it out as well, but I'm always up for the mental challenge!

  5. #25
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    Quote Originally Posted by Poimandres View Post
    I will not rest; I will not sleep, relax, relent, or be satisfied until my goals have been met, the challenge answered and all my doubters silenced. I will not give in to my foes; I wont let down my teammates. I wont stop inspiring those who look up to me or stop giving motivation to those who motivate me. I will not back off until I’m back on top, back in the place where they said I could never be again. Mountains dont scare me. The lack of mountains scare me. The climb up, the struggle for every inch of ground and every level of ascension is what feeds me. I welcome that challenge. I welcome that chance to be fed because no matter what - no matter how hard, how far, or how many stand in my way, I remain determined. ― Kobe Bryant
    "The will is a world architect and composer, the will is a world power and mover. The world is shaped in the image of our wills and by the power of our wills. Will has essentially the nature of a force. Like all forces, will has a magnitude and a direction, and just like things move in the direction of the strongest force, things move in the direction of the strongest will. Whenever you loose something, you faced a greater will and were overpowered by it. If you want something to happen strongly enough, if the world wants something to happen strongly enough, then it is going to happen. The will is a creator. Will is a living organism, it grows and develops along with the individual. Weak individuals are characterized by a weak will or lack of will. Ill people are known by an ill will or a destructive will. Hence the presence and development of will is absolutely essential for personal and spiritual ascension. The key to the higher and diviner life is a strong and healthy will, a will to improve, a will to exceed, a will to life, but most importantly a will to ascend. The seed transforms into a flower by a will to ascend in the instrument. The will to ascend is an elevator to the higher levels of being, a key to unlock the higher potentials of life and a power to manifest them. I do want to climb a high mountain today!" ― Friedrich Nietzsche
    Attachment 9237
    Explore the Edge of Endlessness - Ascend the Mountain of Transformation - Omnipotence
    “Close your eyes and let the mind expand. Let no fear of death or darkness arrest its course. Allow the mind to merge with Mind. Let it flow out upon the great curve of consciousness. Let it soar on the wings of the great bird of duration, up to the very Circle of Eternity. If thou but settest foot on this path, thou shalt see it everywhere." ― Hermes

    If it is not true it is very well invented. What we each seek is the direction of our dreams. Though these concepts we create may not have a real immanence in existence, they should nonetheless serve us as guiding stars we can gaze to from across the horizon, ideals we can all aspire towards and follow. If we push our chase to the edge, places un-previously imagined in our time may shine with all promise as they progress from possibilities to present paths we will walk. The particular map I present in this program is a projection that can work for all people, as it allows for individuality and being your own true self.

  6. #26
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    Quote Originally Posted by Poimandres View Post
    "I am Darth Revan, Dark Lord of the Sith. Those who use the dark side are also bound to serve it. To understand this is to understand the underlying philosophy of the Sith. The dark side offers power for power's sake. You must crave it. Covet it. You must seek power above all else, with no reservation or hesitation. The Force will change you. It will transform you. Some fear this change. The teachings of the Jedi are focused on fighting and controlling this transformation. That is why those who serve the light are limited in what they accomplish."
    ―Darth Revan's avatar, to Darth Bane

    "True power can come only to those who embrace the transformation. There can be no compromise. Mercy, compassion, loyalty: all these things will prevent you from claiming what is rightfully yours. Those who follow the dark side must cast aside these conceits. Those who do not—those who try to walk the path of moderation—will fail, dragged down by their own weakness. Those who accept the power of the dark side must also accept the challenge of holding on to it. By its very nature the dark side invites rivalry and strife. This is the greatest strength of the Sith: it culls the weak from our order. Yet this rivalry can also be our greatest weakness. The strong must be careful lest they be overwhelmed by the ambitions of those working beneath them in concert. Any master who instructs more than one apprentice in the ways of the dark side is a fool. In time, the apprentices will unite their strengths and overthrow the master. It is inevitable; axiomatic. That is why each Master must have only one student."
    ―Darth Revan's avatar, to Darth Bane

    "This is also the reason there can only be one Dark Lord. The Sith must be ruled by a single leader: the very embodiment of the strength and power of the dark side. If the leader grows weak another must rise to seize the mantle. The strong rule; the weak are meant to serve. This is the way it must be. My time here is ended. Take what I have taught you and use it well."
    ―Darth Revan's avatar, to Darth Bane



    So fellas I would be interested in your opinions about the philosophies of Darth Revan. Thanks!

  7. #27
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    What is our world? How many levels of existence does it have to it? Why is it here? If we really investigate these questions, we can push them very far. We don’t even know if the big bang theory or our other scientific models are accurate. If we had better observations, we might discover that our old assumptions would be revolutionized. Science can’t tell us everything yet. It can give us a lot of nice clues, but it’s not the whole story. Our physical observations of reality are limited. The physical reality is a good reflection and inspiration for what could be higher, but there’s definitely a lot more to it. The physical world is a very fluctuating place. There’s plenty of good stuff in it, but there’s also a lot of bad stuff as well. We need to adjust to the constant flux and rise above it. We must seize this moment of challenge, grow, improve, develop, evolve and transform from it, reach a higher level of being. We have to be tough and take on the challenge to learn everything we can while we’re here, which should refine us for whatever comes next.

    How do you objectively verify something? How do you even know it’s correct? It’s important to gather facts and to see the evidence, because it’s part of the puzzle we’re trying to piece together, but it’s definitely not the whole picture. There’s a lot of stuff out there that we just can’t see or contact. The intangibles are just as important as the tangibles if not more so. What’s true is largely based on perspective, how we’re seeing things. If we can open our eyes, see clearly, and adjust to the light, then we are liberated. We would have the freedom to explore and wouldn’t be lost stumbling around in the dark. We have to let go of preconceptions and be open to the possibility that we’re dead wrong. If we just think we’re right about everything, then we don’t gather more information, explore, or consider alternative possibilities. In finding truth, the first important step is to have an open mind, and then you just need to go out and explore it.

    Good and evil is very subjective and related to how we’re experiencing it. Heaven is where we associate comfort, joy, happiness, and such. These categories are based on reference points relative to each other. Knowledge is good because it enlightens us, helps us to see the world better. In order to see the world, there needs to be darkness in the contrast. Good and evil are interplays that from the differences we can divine an understanding of the light. If everything were light, then we wouldn’t see it because there would be no differences. Diversity is an important dynamic in our world in causing things to change, to be understood, to transform and to make our world move like a true system. Good and evil is very much related to knowledge, how we perceive it. When there’s knowledge or light there’s darkness, its necessary or contingent cause and effect, so if you put a lot of good into the world, its evil reflection will follow. I’m not sure if there’s a way to logically resolve this paradox, like if God as he created the world might have been able to annihilate evil and still preserve the good. That’s a good question, and I don’t know the answer, but perhaps it would be good to know.

    It it’s in your will and you want it to happen, with the right tenacity and control on your side, you can make it happen. If it’s an event outside your control, you have to be able to let go. Of course you want your result, but if you don’t get it, then you just have to move on because life is a constant flux. You need to adjust, work with the context, and if you don’t get what you want, you need to be ready for coming developments later. If everything went perfectly for you all the time, then it wouldn’t be interesting when you get what you want. You need to rise up to the challenge. The power of the will, if something is in your control, can make things immanent if you focus hard enough on it. The mind is the prime mover and force of causation, makes creation possible. It starts mentally. That’s where the intensity is, the focus point. If you can conceive of it in your mind and you want it to happen, if it’s in your control, then there’s nothing you can’t do, even if it takes eons for its accomplishment.

    If this world we live in could be some kind of matrix, it might be possible to program and command. I guess there has to be an architect who designed the system, a super-mind of sorts, but I have no idea though how to visualize such an ultimate creative power. The logos are the codes spoken by God for a game played at all evolutionary levels. If we were made by advanced beings at the end of time, they certainly don’t have a good sense of ethics. Look at all of the amazing things in our world, but also look at all of the suffering and evil! It seems like a torture system, where divinity watches and laughs. Maybe though there’s good and bad players involved in the game, and we pick sides. It’s strange how our world could have loading screens and massive processing of information, just like in our less developed computer simulations. I guess even the artificial intelligence can develop a will or mind of its own. If we could possibly ‘break the system’, then maybe we could jump into a much larger world where we were designed.

    There’s much esoteric truth out there that we can’t yet bear. Free will could be connected to the Garden of Eden, and the sublime truth would be unjust to reveal before our corrupted beings. Free will means something, and if we were in perfect cooperation with God, we wouldn’t be free. It’s knowledge that will liberate our will. We need an objective point, an external standard to give the will its freedom. The will is free in why we choose to do something. Our grasp of how things should or might be can’t come into the picture within a perfect world, and our hope can realize this. We can’t perfectly attach the why to the will. Asking why of the will is what connects it to knowledge. Your grasp of how things should be will be a resistance to the will of what we want. Not having this is what’s liable to cause the machine that makes this system to not work, but with the proper possession of human thought, and the energies it exerts on our life, we can discharge our thoughts and let things go. Certain things are possible and impossible for our human forms. Love at the center of our being is the tie to divinity. The archangels could be some kind of higher divine race. If we are everything and look at the galaxy of eternal bliss, what should we do? Perhaps the meaning is to create our own history. We start creating the world by making laws and different manifest copies of ourselves. Those beings more defined were less free and had less power. Entities can help to realize the will of God. We can use the words of creation to generate effects. We must take action for our will to be done.

    There were many models of this world at different times that could have existed. This world always existed, and it’s moved through different dimensions. The battles or fables of spirit are a continuing heavenly drama taking place within the divine order, and this war brought chaos to the harmony. Heaven is a timeless place that exists in the eternal mind. Our life has the power to change this, and the thinking controls observation and the spiritual language much more than action. If we’re focused on why things are, we get stuck on experience. How things should be doesn’t translate into a plan, or outline the steps we need to take in getting there. We need a focus on hope, of why we want things to be in front of our eyes, rather than focusing on what only seemingly proves correct at the present. Those in authority should ask what’s right before commanding, to visualize the good and not pretend to be the moral arbiter of things. It changes the whole landscape when we think of things differently, and then the right clarity of thought can determine changes by our will.

    We need to have psychological premises to develop philosophies. We need to see the divine in the mundane, connections that give us real esoteric truth. When we have the perspective of it all, the grand scope of our will, it would not move as it is everything. If it’s at its best state, why make it better? We can’t perceive things as being perfect. People who love pleasure and hate pain with grand technology and ethics at immortal evolutionary levels would all have interrelated positions in the whole system. Life is bad because we don’t try to make it better, and people seek only their own benefits. We are meant to be happier than we are, and our wills should be free. We can raise people and make them better with an accurate understanding of things, of the ‘why’. The point of free will is for the ‘I am that I am’ to control everything. Free will is connected to the why, the reasons behind things. When we ask why, we can do anything! It gives us the directional will, to create what could be. If we don’t ask why and how things should be, we will lose our self-mastery, I am that I am. Because we can see God, we can reflect that static truth onto reality. The ‘I am that I am’ gives us the focus to unleash energy charged from within to act in context.

    Justice is how people should correspond to one another. We need to have life. Why something will be is immaterial and on the plane with free will. The immaterial aligns us with the process, the relations of the ethereal to make things immanent within reality. From the sea of chaos we can cause new creations to spring into being. When we question everything, then we can break the system. Our culture has no values or sense of identity. In the coming years, we could revolutionize society. If someone can solve the problems facing humanity, we could invent a new society out of the ashes. If something goes wrong, a society without values blames problems on other people, and this is because we don’t trust authority, trust the system. If we have a better way of doing things, we need to implement the solution by the power of command, to replace the powers. The center can’t hold if the values don’t work. By our use of knowledge, we can have the freedom to will the world. We corrupt and kill the program from within. This cultural fire will destroy and ultimately purify the system of command. We also need a blueprint for what comes afterwards, a private government that allows for individuality, and this can improve the model on the large scale, make the parts in the machine work together better.

    Power must justify itself. People in power must serve the subjects. The leader that takes over needs the force of an equalizer. When he takes over, he can’t immediately win everyone over, and that’s the problem. The point is to change the culture’s interface, make people walk in their own ways and in harmony. We won’t work as slaves, but rather perfect the process in making things more efficient, not only in productivity but also in enjoyment. Activities are better when people like them. We can’t get free will from computation. We would need acts of procreation rather than programming. For something to have a will, it must be able to create, not only with matter but at a spiritual level. God can’t be referenced to anything inside the universe. We can reflect God’s light by the sparkles of our own being. The divine light is the faith that gives us the power to make things as they will be. The journey of spirit goes ever deeper, and it can be expressed by the context, come to transform itself. We must discover our sense of direction and will. We need a bridge to get where we want to go. We must destroy something to replace it with a new creation. Just because we can understand the process and see it clearly doesn’t mean we can climb up the mountain with our own self and things. Gazing across the horizon is easier than soaring across it, to fly with full freedom and break all of the barriers. We instead have to see the darkness in life, to see all of the evil. Evilness is a struggle, and we can rise above it to transform ourselves. My task is so big to know it all that I can’t do it and get lazy. What I’ve decided to care about is so immense that it can’t be done. This hurts my hope because what I want is bad. Being a super-mind that controls everything takes away life.

  8. #28
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    The Acentric Labyrinth: Giordano Bruno's Prelude to Contemporary Cosmology

    I The infinite universe:

    1 The universe is infinite.
    2 It is infinite because it has no borders or limits, neither does it have a surface, and hence neither circumference nor figure.
    3 The universe has no center.
    4 Space is an homogeneous and infinite continuum.
    5 The ether is identical with the void or absolute space. Thus, so understood, the void is not impossible. There is interplanetary and interstellar space (or void). The universe is not solid. The heavenly bodies are not in a vacuum, but in this medium called ether; this is their only universal ‘place’. There are no absolute voids or perfect vacuums in the universe, nor outside of it.
    6 The universe is one single whole.
    7 The infinite universe does not need an external motor to move it. In itself it is immovable, since there is nothing else it can move towards or go away from; however, everything in it is in constant motion.
    8 From the infinite universe new abundance of matter is always born.
    9 The universe is homogeneous and isotropic; there is no hierarchy in cosmic matter resulting from its relative distance from the human observer on Earth; the universe looks the same from wherever in the universe an observer may look at it. All heavenly bodies are made of the same elements and have similar composition, consistency, and structure. Neither the sun nor the Earth have any cosmological privileges over other heavenly bodies in the infinite universe. There is no essential difference between the sublunar the supralunar world.
    10 Motion is universal. All heavenly bodies are endowed with several kinds of movement, and none of them is perfectly regular.
    11 The universe had no beginning in time; it will have no end either; it is eternal.
    12 There is no absolute time. In the universe, the number of times correspond to the number of celestial bodies.
    13 The material universe consists of space, ether, atoms, and light.
    14 Light is not made up of atoms.

    II The innumerable worlds:

    15 There are innumerable, indeed infinite, suns and planets in the universe.
    16 These innumerable suns and planets are in themselves finite.
    17 Heavenly bodies move freely in space. The celestial vault or firmament – the ultimate sphere of fixed stars equidistant from the Earth – is an illusion. All heavenly bodies have in themselves their own immanent principle of movement (soul); they are automotive and animated; they do not need to be pushed or pulled by other bodies; their source of movement is internal vigor, not external impulse (mechanical push or pull).
    18 The Sun is a star and the stars are suns. They are not made up exclusively of fire, but of the same elements that make up the Earth as well as all other celestial bodies.
    19 The Sun, like all heavenly bodies, moves; it revolves around its center.
    20 Besides the visible planets, there may be other invisible ones rotating around the Sun which we cannot see because of their distance or size.
    21 There are probably other planetary orbits around other suns besides our own solar ones.
    22 The farther the planets are from the Sun, the longer are their orbits, and the longer their orbits, the slower they move around the Sun.
    23 The Earth is a planet not unlike many others in the universe. It moves freely in space, and is not a perfect sphere.
    24 There are probably living beings in other worlds.

    III The soul of the universe:

    25 The universe is one because it has one single immanent principle that holds all its parts together, just as the human soul is the one single principle that holds together and interrelates all parts of the body. It is the soul of the universe.
    26 The soul of the universe must be conceived as the principle and substance of the universe, although its true nature is extremely difficult to grasp.
    27 The universal soul is found in everything, and there is no corpuscle, however tiny, that is not animated by it.
    28 The universal soul is able to produce all from all.

    IV The universal intellect:

    29 There is order in the universe; this order is not the result of chance, as the atomists would have it, but rather the effect of an efficient cause, the universal intellect. The universal intellect is the only single immanent principle of organized complexity in the universe: Mind, God, Being, the One, Truth, Fate, Reason, Order.
    30 The agent that governs, orders, and directs everything in the universe is the intellect of the soul of the universe; the intellect is not only the formal cause and principle of the universe, but its efficient cause as well.
    31 The efficient cause of the universe, the universal intellect, must also be conceived as the final cause of the universe, for it may be conceived as having an infinite (not transcendentally pre-established) purpose, namely that all possible forms of matter it contains can be actualized, for it must become everything that it can possibly become. It so strives to achieve perfection through a full ‘explication’ or unfolding.
    32 The universe is not complete and perfect; the infinite universe is open and therefore can never reach perfect completion.

    V Matter and form:

    33 Matter and form, the passive and the active metaphysical principles of all physical reality, are inseparable, infinite, eternal, and indestructible.
    34 Matter is divine and animated from within by the equally divine formal principle.
    35 All the individual forms existing in the universe are not received by matter from outside, but all proceed from the infinitely fecund bosom of matter animated by one single form, which is the soul of the universe.
    36 The One (universal intellect or a cosmic mind) effects an infinity of forms out of uncreated matter throughout eternity. There was never a single act of creation that produced, out of nothing, a complete and perfect universe of immutable forms.
    37 All the infinite different forms in the universe are subject to constant transformations. All forms on Earth are incessantly changing into other forms, and all bodies in the universe are equally transmutable and susceptible to incessant changes.
    38 In the universe, only space and ether are continua; the rest are either discrete, perfectly solid, indivisible atoms, or the bodies of such atoms. The atoms are the most elementary particles of matter.
    39 Matter comprehends a lot more than atoms; it includes ether and light as well.
    40 Atoms are automotive and animated, that is, they have in themselves the principles of movement (they have ‘souls’). Their movements produce infinite combinations which settle down to innumerable forms.

  9. #29
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    The perspectives of Nietzsche

    Truth and Knowledge
    Cause and effect: such a duality probably never exists; in truth we are confronted by a continuum out of which we isolate a couple of pieces, just as we perceive motion only as isolated points and then infer it without ever actually seeing it. The suddenness with which many effects stand out misleads us; actually, it is sudden only for us. In this moment of suddenness there are an infinite number of processes which elude us. An intellect that could see cause and effect as a continuum and a flux and not, as we do, in terms of an arbitrary division and dismemberment, would repudiate the concept of cause and effect and deny all conditionality.

    from Nietzsche's The Gay Science, s.112, Walter Kaufmann transl..
    To renounce belief in one's ego, to deny one's own "reality" -- what a triumph! not merely over the senses, over appearance, but a much higher kind of triumph, a violation and cruelty against reason -- a voluptuous pleasure that reaches its height when the ascetic self-contempt and self-mockery of reason declares: "there is a realm of truth and being, but reason is excluded from it!"
    But precisely because we seek knowledge, let us not be ungrateful to such resolute reversals of accustomed perspectives and valuations with which the spirit has, with apparent mischievousness and futility, raged against itself for so long: to see differently in this way for once, to want to see differently, is no small discipline and preparation for its future "objectivity" -- the latter understood not as "contemplation without interest" (which is a nonsensical absurdity), but as the ability to control one's Pro and Con and to dispose of them, so that one knows how to employ a variety of perspectives and affective interpretations in the service of knowledge.
    Henceforth, my dear philosophers, let us be on guard against the dangerous old conceptual fiction that posited a "pure, will-less, painless, timeless knowing subject"; let us guard against the snares of such contradictory concepts as "pure reason," absolute spirituality," "knowledge in itself": these always demand that we should think of an eye that is completely unthinkable, an eye turned in no particular direction, in which the active and interpreting forces, through which alone seeing becomes seeing something, are supposed to be lacking; these always demand of the eye an absurdity and a nonsense. There is only a perspective seeing, only a perspective "knowing"; and the more affects we allow to speak about one thing, the more eyes, different eyes, we can use to observe one thing, the more complete will our "concept" of this thing, our "objectivity," be. But to eliminate the will altogether, to suspend each and every affect, supposing we were capable of this -- what would that mean but to castrate the intellect?

    from Nietzsche's The Genealogy of Morals, s III.12, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Will to Power
    Suppose nothing else were "given" as real except our world of desires and passions, and we could not get down, or up, to any other "reality" besides the reality of our drives--for thinking is merely a relation of these drives to each other: is it not permitted to make the experiment and to ask the question whether this "given" would not be sufficient for also understanding on the basis of this kind of thing the so-called mechanistic (or "material") world?...

    In the end not only is it permitted to make this experiment; the conscience of method demands it. Not to assume several kinds of causality until the experiment of making do with a single one has been pushed to its utmost limit (to the point of nonsense, if I may say so)... The question is in the end whether we really recognize the will as efficient, whether we believe in the causality of the will: if we do--and at bottom our faith in this is nothing less than our faith in causality itself--then we have to make the experiment of positing causality of the will hypothetically as the only one. "Will," of course, can affect only "will"--and not "matter" (not "nerves," for example). In short, one has to risk the hypothesis whether will does not affect will wherever "effects" are recognized--and whether all mechanical occurrences are not, insofar as a force is active in them, will force, effects of will.

    Suppose, finally, we succeeded in explaining our entire instinctive life as the development and ramification of one basic form of the will--namely, of the will to power, as my proposition has it... then one would have gained the right to determine all efficient force univocally as--will to power. The world viewed from inside... it would be "will to power" and nothing else.

    from Beyond Good and Evil, s.36, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Plan for an unfinished book: The Eternal Recurrence
    My philosophy brings the triumphant idea of which all other modes of thought will ultimately perish. It is the great cultivating idea: the races that cannot bear it stand condemned; those who find it the greatest benefit are chosen to rule...

    I want to teach the idea that gives many the right to erase themselves - the great cultivating idea...

    Everything becomes and recurs eternally - escape is impossible! - Supposing we could judge value, what follows? The idea of recurrence as a selective principle, in the service of strength (and barbarism!!)...

    To endure the idea of the recurrence one needs: freedom from morality; new means against the fact of pain ( pain conceived as a tool, as the father of pleasure...); the enjoyment of all kinds of uncertainty, experimentalism, as a counterweight to this extreme fatalism; abolition of the concept of necessity; abolition of the "will"; abolition of "knowledge-in-itself."

    Greatest elevation of the consciousness of strength in man, as he creates the overman.

    from The Will to Power, s. 1053,1056,1058,1060, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    Towards the Ubermensch
    "I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?
    All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment...
    Behold, I teach you the overman. The overman is the meaning of the earth.Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they, whether they know it or not. Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselves, of whom the earth is weary: so let them go.
    Once the sin against God was the greatest sin; but God died, and these sinners died with him. To sin against the earth is now the most dreadful thing, and to esteem the entrails of the unknowable higher than the meaning of the earth...
    What is the greatest experience you can have? It is the hour of the great contempt. The hour when your happiness, too, arouses your disgust, and even your reason and your virtue.
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my happiness? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment. But my happiness ought to justify existence itself.'
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my reason? Does it crave knowledge as the lion his food? It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment.'
    The hour when you say, 'What matters my virtue? As yet it has not made me rage. How weary I am of my good and my evil! All that is poverty and filth and wretched contentment.'
    "Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman--a rope over an abyss...
    What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end: what can be loved in man is that he is an overture and a going under...
    "I say unto you: one must still have chaos in oneself to be able to give birth to a dancing star. I say unto you: you still have chaos in yourselves.
    Alas, the time is coming when man will no longer give birth to a star. Alas, the time of the most despicable man is coming, he that is no longer able to despise himself. Behold, I show you the last man.
    'What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?' thus asks the last man, and blinks.
    The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is as ineradicable as the flea; the last man lives longest.
    'We have invented happiness,'say the last men, and they blink. They have left the regions where it was hard to live, for one needs warmth. One still loves one's neighbor and rubs against him, for one needs warmth...
    One still works, for work is a form of entertainment. But one is careful lest the entertainment be too harrowing. One no longer becomes poor or rich: both require too much exertion. Who still wants to rule? Who obey? Both require too much exertion.
    No shepherd and one herd! Everybody wants the same, everybody is the same: whoever feels different goes voluntarily into a madhouse.
    'Formerly, all the world was mad,' say the most refined, and they blink...
    One has one's little pleasure for the day and one's little pleasure for the night: but one has a regard for health.
    'We have invented happiness,' say the last men, and they blink."

    from Nietzsche's Thus spoke Zarathustra, p.3,4,5, Walter Kaufmann transl.
    ON THE THREE METAMORPHOSES OF THE SPIRIT
    Of the three metamorphoses of the spirit I tell you: how the spirit becomes a camel; and the camel, a lion; and the lion, finally, a child.
    There is much that is difficult for the spirit, the strong, reverent spirit that would bear much: but the difficult and the most difficult are what its strength demands.
    What is difficult? asks the spirit that would bear much, and kneels down like a camel wanting to be well loaded. What is most difficult, O heroes, asks the spirit that would bear much, that I may take it upon myself and exult in my strength? Is it not humbling oneself to wound one's haughtiness? Letting one's folly shine to mock one's wisdom?...
    Or is it this: stepping into filthy waters when they are the waters of truth, and not repulsing cold frogs and hot toads?
    Or is it this: loving those that despise us and offering a hand to the ghost that would frighten us?
    All these most difficult things the spirit that would bear much takes upon itself: like the camel that, burdened, speeds into the desert, thus the spirit speeds into its desert.
    In the loneliest desert, however, the second metamorphosis occurs: here the spirit becomes a lion who would conquer his freedom and be master in his own desert. Here he seeks out his last master: he wants to fight him and his last god; for ultimate victory he wants to fight with the great dragon.
    Who is the great dragon whom the spirit will no longer call lord and god? "Thou shalt" is the name of the great dragon. But the spirit of the lion says, "I will." "Thou shalt" lies in his way, sparkling like gold, an animal covered with scales; and on every scale shines a golden "thou shalt."
    Values, thousands of years old, shine on these scales; and thus speaks the mightiest of all dragons: "All value has long been created, and I am all created value. Verily, there shall be no more 'I will.'" Thus speaks the dragon.
    My brothers, why is there a need in the spirit for the lion? Why is not the beast of burden, which renounces and is reverent, enough?
    To create new values -- that even the lion cannot do; but the creation of freedom for oneself and a sacred "No" even to duty -- for that, my brothers, the lion is needed. To assume the right to new values -- that is the most terrifying assumption for a reverent spirit that would bear much. Verily, to him it is preying, and a matter for a beast of prey. He once loved "thou shalt" as most sacred: now he must find illusion and caprice even in the most sacred, that freedom from his love may become his prey: the lion is needed for such prey.
    But say, my brothers, what can the child do that even the lion could not do? Why must the preying lion still become a child? The child is innocence and forgetting, a new beginning, a game, a self-propelled wheel, a first movement, a sacred "Yes." For the game of creation, my brothers, a sacred "Yes" is needed: the spirit now wills his own will, and he who had been lost to the world now conquers the world.

    from Nietzsche's Thus spoke Zarathustra, part I, Walter Kaufmann transl.

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    Spinoza’s Ethics

    Spinoza’s Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata (Ethics demonstrated in geometrical order) is based on a deductive method derived from Euclidean geometry. Spinoza maintains that the validity of ethical ideas can be demonstrated by mathematical argument or proof. Spinoza asserts that ethics can be based on a geometric model in which axioms and propositions follow each other with logical necessity. This reflects the view that ethical truth has the same logical necessity as mathematical truth. Spinoza sees ethics as a rational system corresponding to the rational nature of the universe.

    The Ethics is divided into five parts: Part I. "Of God;" Part II. "Of the Nature and Origin of the Mind;" Part III. "Of the Origin and Nature of the Emotions;" Part IV. "Of Human Bondage, or Of the Strength of the Emotions;" Part V. "Of the Power of the Intellect, or Of Human Liberty."

    Each of the five parts of the Ethics consists of several definitions and axioms, followed by a series of propositions and corollaries.

    The propositions of Part III are followed by forty-eight definitions of the emotions, including desire, pleasure, pain, love, hatred, hope, fear, despair, joy, disappointment, humility, pride, anger, shame, cruelty, benevolence, etc.

    Spinoza begins by describing what can be known about God. God is infinite being, according to Spinoza. God is infinite substance, consisting of infinite attributes, each of which expresses God’s eternal and infinite essence (I, Prop. XI).1

    God necessarily exists, argues Spinoza, because God’s essence is existence. God’s essence is perfect, and therefore God's perfection implies that God must exist. God’s essence and existence are the same (I, Prop. XX). Each attribute which expresses God’s essence also expresses God’s existence.

    According to Spinoza, infinite substance is indivisible (I, Prop. XIII). If infinite substance were divisible, it could either be divided into two finite parts, which is impossible, or it could be divided into two equally infinite parts, which is also impossible. Thus, there is only one infinite substance.

    Since God is infinite substance, Spinoza argues, no attribute which expresses the essence of substance can be denied of God (I, Prop. XIV). Every being has its being in God. Nothing can come into being or exist without God.

    According to Spinoza, the will and the intellect are modes of thought. The will is the same as the intellect. In God, intellect is actual and not potential, because in God intellect is fully actualized. This means that things must necessarily occur in the manner in which they occur, because the intellect or will of God is fully actualized.

    For Spinoza, God is the necessary cause of all things. All things by nature proceed from necessity. All things are predetermined by God, and for anything that exists, some effect must follow.

    Spinoza argues that thought is one of the attributes of God (II, Prop. I). God can think an infinite number of things in an infinite number of ways. God’s infinite intellect comprehends all of God’s attributes.

    According to Spinoza, God is the essence of substance. Thought and extension are attributes of God. Thus, God is the essence of thinking substance (i.e. mind) and of extended substance (i.e. body).

    Substance is defined by Spinoza as a mode of being which implies necessary existence. God is infinite substance, and outside of God no other substance is possible. Thus, Spinoza’s philosophy is pantheistic, in that it claims that God is present in all things.

    Spinoza argues that the human mind is a part of the infinite intellect of God (II, Prop. XI, Corollary). All ideas are present in the intellect of God. Ideas are true and adequate insofar as they refer to God. Ideas that logically follow from adequate ideas are also adequate. Ideas are false and inadequate insofar as they do not express the essence of God.

    According to Spinoza, an idea is adequate and perfect insofar as it represents knowledge of the eternal and infinite essence of God. Spinoza says that, since the idea of anything actually existing must come from God, the human mind is capable of knowing God (II, Prop. XLV).

    For Spinoza, the will cannot be separated from the intellect. There is no such thing as free will, because the human mind is determined in its willing by a cause other than itself. God’s will, which has no cause other than itself, reveals itself by necessity rather than by freedom. Thus, Spinoza explains that the will can only be a necessary cause of action, and not a free cause of action (I, Prop. XXXII).

    Spinoza also argues that from any idea, an effect must necessarily follow. Insofar as an idea adequately refers to God, its effect is caused immediately by God. Insofar as an idea inadequately refers to God, its effect has intermediary causes and is not caused immediately by God.

    Spinoza explains that the human mind may have both adequate and inadequate ideas. The mind is active insofar as it has adequate ideas, and is passive insofar as it has inadequate ideas. The mind may have more or less adequate ideas, according to whether it is more or less subject to reason. The mind may have more or less inadequate ideas, according to whether it is more or less subject to emotion.

    According to Spinoza there are three primary emotions: desire, pleasure, and pain. All emotions arise from desire, pleasure, or pain. Desire may arise from either pleasure or pain. Pleasure may be produced by a transition from a lesser to a greater state of perfection. Pain may be produced by a transition from a greater to a lesser state of perfection.

    For Spinoza, perfection is the same as reality II, Def. VI). The more perfect a thing is, the more real it is. Inasmuch as God is absolutely perfect, God is also absolutely real. God is infinitely perfect and infinitely real.

    Spinoza claims that the more perfect a thing is, the more active and less passive it is. The more active a thing is, the more it becomes perfect (IV, Prop. XL). Perfection and imperfection are modes of thought.2 The mind is most perfect when it knows God.

    Spinoza argues that knowledge of good and evil arises from the awareness of what causes pleasure and pain. The greatest good of the mind, and its greatest virtue, is to know God (IV, Prop. XXVIII). To act with virtue is to act according to reason (IV, Prop. XXXVI). If we act according to reason, then we desire only what is good. If we act according to reason, then we try to promote what is good not only for ourselves but for others. Freedom is the ability to act according to reason. Freedom is not the ability to make free, undetermined choices. Freedom is the ability to act rationally and to control the emotions. Servitude is the inability to act rationally or to control the emotions.

    Spinoza admits that all emotions may not necessarily conflict with reason. Emotions which agree with reason may cause pleasure, while emotions which do not agree with reason may cause pain. Inability to control the emotions may cause pain.

    According to Spinoza, pain is the knowledge of evil. Pain arises from inadequate ideas, i.e. ideas which do not adequately express the essence of God. Knowledge of evil is thus inadequate knowledge (IV, Prop. XIV). Pleasure is knowledge of what is good. Pleasure arises from adequate ideas, i.e. ideas which adequately express the essence of God. Knowledge of good is thus adequate knowledge.

    Spinoza argues that to live according to reason is to live freely, and is not to live in servitude to the emotions. If we act according to reason, then we are guided by love and good-will and not by fear or hatred.

    Spinoza maintains that reason can control the emotions. Reason is virtue, and virtue is love toward God. The more we love God, the more we are able to control our emotions (V, Prop. XLII, Proof). The better we can control our emotions, the better we can understand God.

    For Spinoza, the more active the mind is, the more adequately it knows God. The more passive the mind is, the less adequately it knows God. The more active the mind is, the more it is able to avoid emotions which are evil. The more passive the mind is, the more it accepts emotions which are evil.

    The question arises as to whether Spinoza’s philosophy is able to reconcile the existence of good with the existence of evil, or the existence of truth with the existence of falsehood. If God is infinite substance, then how can any kind of evil or falsehood occur? If God is perfect, then how can God allow the existence of evil or suffering? Spinoza’s answer is that evil is a lack of good and that falsehood is a lack of truth. Error and falsehood arise from inadequate knowledge of God. Knowledge of evil arises from inadequate ideas, i.e. ideas that do not adequately refer to God. Knowledge of good arises from adequate ideas, i.e. ideas that adequately refer to God.

    Spinoza argues that all ideas are found in God, but that ideas are true only insofar as they adequately refer to God. Truth is adequate knowledge, but falsehood is inadequate knowledge.

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