I am an INTP, and therefore eternally subject to intellectual obsessions.
I have two: Philosophy of Religion, and Types.
So, in keeping with that I want to exhale some thoughts on those subjects, and their intersections.
First of all, I am an Agnostic at heart, as I believe it is natural for an INTP to be. At about 18 I converted to Christianity (LDS, to be precise) and spent two years far from home, doing nothing else put proselyting that very faith. Since then, I have had a great deal of time to ponder my beliefs and decisions. I hope I have used that time wisely.
My basic observation is that NF's are almost always angstful toward religion - gripped on one side by romantic credulism, and on the other by an abstract intellect that allows them to be quite skeptical about anything that can't tie it's loose ends together. More than that, they often have a distaste for the 'box' that religion can put us in, and also for the repression and close-mindedness of those who are convinced that their truth is the only truth.
Therefore, it seems natural that NF's would lean toward the spiritual, not supernatural... the principles, not the beliefs. But, if they do believe, watch out. Joan of Arc got herself killed and sainted (which, I suspect, is the deep-seeded goal of many NF's. C'mon, admit it!)
As I stated before, I have observed that many INTP's drift toward Agnosticism. I think this is a result of their P aspect not feeling comfortable with absolutes. But, NT's in general have tended to be somewhere between Atheist (The Religion of Science), and Uninterested. With a dash of conspiracy-theorist, science-fiction credulism popping up at certain times in certain people.
Ultimately, NT's are the disbelievers true. It seems foolish to believe, and mindless to agree.
Hedonism is the religion of SP's. Not sex, not lasciviousness, but happiness and pleasure. Fun, excitement, joy, and sensory fulfillment are the ideals to be upheld. Many religions offer this, or at least aspects of those religions help us to achieve it. Beyond that, SP's are inclined to believe. Where N's miss the mark with their deconstructions, the SP's accept that we don't know everything. Faith leads to fulfillment in a real sense, and real happiness is more important than nitpicky analysis and 'endless possibilities'.
What brings us happiness and helps in a real way? That's the SP's religion.
Social order keeps us all together. Religion is a community, a family. Above all that, like many SP's, a great number of SJ's are inclined to be believers. Why? Science has it's uses, but it doesn't always 'pay the bills' or keep us together, nor does it always help us and our lives. Far-fetched beliefs and ideas can be hurtful as often as helpful, and many of the conventions and beliefs that have brought us to where we are, safe and whole, will take us into the future just as well... constantly questioning just for questionings sake can often only serve to shake up the foundations that we have built upon. That being said, it is just as likely that the beliefs that our civilization is based on are more 'true' and more 'expedient' than the long-winded theories of people whose personal lives and practical contributions have been less impressive.
For the SJ's traditional belief is what brought us here, it is what keeps us going, and has lasted much longer and been more successful than the hippie movement!
From these different points of view there can obviously be a lot of room for dissension and argument. But, we all fit into a whole. The NT's analyze and discover, the NF's ponder and deepen, the SP's make sure it all lifts us up and makes the moments of our lives more full, and the SJ's keep what works and hold the community together.
I am interested in what those of the various types have to say about my analysis of their type's tendencies, and how they themselves may fit into it or differ from it.
Specifics aren't as important. I don't care if you prefer 'same essence' over 'similar essence'. But, how you fit or don't fit into the natural tendencies of your type... and your thoughts about what those natural tendencies might be.