THE FOUR PREFERENCES, DEMYSTIFIED:
There are 4 dimensions summarizing the spectrum of human personality. Each comprise 2 opposite behavioral dispositions, which makes these dimensions dichotomous. Everyone can behave in both ways but most people prefer behaving in one way more than the other, and that is what we call "preference".
E/I -- Extraversion/Introversion. Extraverts are focused on the outer world of things or people. Introverts are focused on the inner world of thoughts or feelings. Extraverts come off as talking too much, and Introverts come off as unsociable.
S/N -- Sensing/Intuition. Sensing types take in information in a concrete way, focusing on specifics. They tend value facts. Intuitives take in information in an abstract way, focusing on patterns. They tend to value ideas. Sensors come off as not having many ideas and being able to see the big picture, and Intuitives come off as airheads who don't know real world data.
T/F -- Thinking/Feeling. Don't get confused by the labels: both types are rational and have feelings. Thinking types prefer making decisions based on impersonal data, such as how the decision will be logically correct or yield practical benefits. Feeling types prefer making decisions based on personal data, such as how the decision will impact them personally or other people. Thinking types come off as heartless and treating people like machines, and Feeling types come off as illogical and subjectively biased.
J/P -- Judging/Perceiving. Judging type like to take decisions early, and tend to be diligent and organized. Perceiving types like to wait for more information before taking decisions, and tend to be adaptable and spontaneous. Those with Judging preferences come off as never really having been youthful, and those with Perceiving preferences come off as never really having grew up.