According to this research, managers are overwhelmingly one of the following 4 types:
Over half of all managers have a TJ preference (unsurprisingly).
This holds true across a broad range of industries and countries. (Only exceptions being Agriculture/Forestry - where ISTPs replace ENTJs, and the Dutch, who apparently prefer ESTPs to ISTJs.)
Now, the male/female % split in this management sample is 76/22. This would ordinarily be explained in terms of an (implicit or explicit) bias in favour of males. However, according to this study only 30% of women in the general population are Ts. Given this, the pool of "suitable" women (assuming T is a favourable trait) shrinks considerably.
In fact, it appears that most of the variance can be explained by type, rather than gender.
86% of managers are Ts, (compared with a population avg of 46%.)
i.e. just under twice as many as would be expected
76% of female managers are Ts, (compared to pop. avg of 30%)
2.5 times as many as would be expected
This highlights a massive ( largely hidden) bias against Fs, both male and female. The majority of people (54%) express a preference for F, and yet they are overwhelmingly managed by Ts.
Naturally, one can debate whether T is more valued because of its association with masculinity. But, that's a more subtle issue.
One can also debate whether T managers actually make better managers; again, another question entirely. (Personally, I doubt it.)
Also worthy of note is that all of the NTs are significantly overrepresented, (more so than STJs, for example, compared to expected % based on gen. pop.). The biggest variance is for INTJ females, with SSR 12.
The order (from highest to lowest, adjusted for representation in population) is as follows:
So much for "Sensor bias"...
There's a pretty clear hierarchy of NT >ST>NF> SF (note that academia isn't included, where one might expect even greater N bias).
With J/P and E/I, perhaps surprisingly, being of lesser importance. (Js doing better than Ps and Es than Is within the broader pattern.)
So, T > N > J > E are favoured, in that order.
In fact, other than the ENFJ/ISTP flip, it's an amazingly consistent pattern.
Lots of important implications, methinks... The main one being, IMO, that if we really want to encourage diversity/inclusivity, we need to start valuing a more F (cooperative/personal) management style, rather than simply focussing on an assumed gender divide.
Report draws the alternative, somewhat crass (though not unexpected) conclusion that "looking at some of the biases that seem to occur, it would be valuable to gain an understanding of whether managers are recognising that in order to cope with a managerial role, they need to develop the ability to behave in ways typically reported for ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ or ENTP types."