"At the University of California in 1929, a long term growth study and
follow-up study of almost 1,000 children was initiated. The
subjects were about equally divided between the two sexes. Nearly
half of them were born during the year 1928-29. For approximately
400 of this series, somatotype photographs were taken at least once
a year until the subjects were fully grown. Many of them were
followed through their twenties, and some through their thirties.
The 400 who stayed with the California project until they were
fully grown are being studied intensively in connection with our
project on the development of the somatotype in children. For all
of the 400 the trunk index remained constat from the first
photograph to the last."
"At the University of Minnesota during World War II, a "starvation
experiment" was carried out on a group of 34 subjects. Under mild
starvation conditions these men lost from 25% to 40% of their total
weight. Somatotype photographs of them were taken before and after
the weight loss. All of these photographs were somatotyped during
1958 at the Texas Instrument Branch of the Constitution Laboratory,
and at this time the trunk indices were calculated. The starvation
changed none of the trunk indices (and, therefore, actually, none
of the somatotypes.)
Somatotype photographs were taken of the class entering the United
States Military Academy at West Point in 1946, and again on
graduation in 1950. These boys had the advantages of closely
supervised body conditioning and muscle developing exercises for
four years at West Point. Many of them changed remarkably in their
general appearance of physical competence and in the surface
manifestations of muscular definition. But for all of them the
trunk index remained a constant.
At Columbia University, somatotype photographs of the entering
freshmen were taken regularly in the years between 1912 and 1917.
In 1955 we photographed 208 of these Columbia graduates at the
Constitution Laboratory in the Columbia Medical Center. None of
the trunk indices had changed, although weight in a few instances
had nearly doubled, and in a few other cases had decreased.
In a series of 46 pairs of identical twins of both sexes studied at
the Constitution Laboratory during the same period, the trunk
indices were identical within each pair, although in a few cases
there were dramatic nutritional differences.
At this time we were running a follow-up study of 412 women and 22
men who had been attending the Columbia Medical Center Nutrition
Clinic for purposes of supervised weight reduction. Some of the
women succeeded in shedding-very temporarily- as much as 150
pounds. But the photographs at maximal and at minimal weight showed
no detectable changes in trunk index. This remained constant
despite nutritional changes."