Let me give you what my father would likely say about this.
He wouldn't give a specific answer, for he would question one of your basic assumptions. He does not like to use the word "thinking" -- for he considers it as useless, and even counterproductive. He has said many times "We do not think -- we have thoughts"
Thus chopping up "thinking" would be considered "reductionistic." So in regard to 2) People don't think "one way or another" -- they "think" all the time. Just as all of us "think" and "feel" whether we are a Myersian T or Myersian F. And 3) how does it help to ask this question, and what could one infer profitly with an answer. Again, we cannot observe "thinking" -- let alone, any "kind" of thinking.
So I would say, reading Howard Gardner, although might be interesting, but I think (i.e., I have an opinion) that Gardner's analysis and perspective has marginal utility in regard to understanding human personality.
Mathematically "thinking" -- since I cannot observe "thinking" in others, but I have "done it" -- I only can point to some entertaining books, like How Mathematicians Think, by William Byers. On the other hand, my greatest joy is reading about all different mathematicians, physicists, chemists, yada yada