This is a general eight-function analysis of INTP based on John Beebe's works (plus Berens).
I've been working on this for a few days and just need to bite off things in manageable chunks. This is still a rough, though.
The conscious personality (first four functions) comes first. I'll finish the subconscious personality (four shadow functions) later and add it here.
This is based partly on the INTJ eight function analysis here.
Function 1. Heroic
This is the cognitive process you're most comfortable using, your primary. It develops first and is called the "Heroic" because it is generally in charge (the leading function) and the 'star of your story' any time you have to engage a situation.
In the case of INTP, the Heroic is Introverted Thinking (Ti), which manifests as the defining and prioritizing of principles of the real world -- forming and comprehending the definitions of things and how they systematically interact based on those definitions.
Things (objects, organizations, people, processes, etc.) are defined by what they've done in the past and what they are doing now; and Thinking can predict (with the appropriate probability attached) what they might do in the future. Definitions are constantly being updated based on new information, and objects are constantly being reduced to their 'essential qualities.'
Ti itself is an evaluation process, rather than a direct view of an object itself. The rules used by the INTP hold more priority than the actual outcome of applying those rules. The output/answer is always based on what is fed into the Thinking hopper.
Function #2. Good Parent
This archetype usually operates in a supportive/protective role, helping the Heroic function as needed. In terms of interaction, it is the 'parental role' -- how we generally contribute to others.
The INTP 'good parent' is Extroverted Intuition (Ne), which instinctively sees all the connections among things and leapfrogs about to unlock the potential of what might happen or how things are related. It is the sense that finds “patterns” in the outer world, and these patterns then are fed into the Ti hopper for processing, to distill general principles from the patterns.
Incidentally, Ne supporting Ti is what makes INTPs so good at theoretical thought, because Ne allows for the perception of all the possible truths/connections, while Ti ensures that the connections being made are all prioritized and scaled as accurately as possible – i.e., placed in context and pitted against each other. Unlikely connections are flagged as improbable, more likely connections are accredited more weight, and meanwhile no options are closed off prematurely (if ever), in case new information might come to light.
When INTPs parent, they do tend to use the Ne approach. They focus on delivering information to their children, giving them opportunities to explore, pointing out potential connections or routes the child could take to reach new relevant ideas. They like to give context and setting to the child when they offer advice, but hate (unless the stakes are high enough) just imposing certain decisions upon them; it is more important for the child to become autonomous and learn a process by which good decisions can be made.
An INTP parent believes their role to be in helping the child see clearly – not just what is out there but what reasonably COULD be out there – and then providing an evaluation process for those possibilities.
(Note: Internally, the place where an INTP “parents herself,” she often will end up using the Ti process to evaluate her own behavior instead of the external Ne. Thus, the INTP as a self-parent is much more critical of herself and does not usually offer herself the same flexibility as she offers other people whom she is advising. One route for change is for the INTP to credit herself with a more positive Ne life coach, not the scathing Ti test corrector.)
3. Child (Jungian "Puer/Puella" -- or "Boy/Girl")
Represents the archetypical child in all of us. We use this trait in a more "child-like" (i.e., unnuanced/uncomplicated/immature) ways. Beebe suggests this means the function can act in an inflated or deflated way.
In the case of INTP, Introverted Sensing plays the “child” role, which means that our sense of our (1) internalized body sensations and an (2) internal roadmap to life are not as well developed as our TiNe combination.
In other words, we are good at distilling truth from the outer world and seeing what is reasonable to expect and drawing truthful principles from that; and the role that Si plays is as a repository for our past conclusions, which can become calcified over time depending on how fearful we happen to be and unwilling to take risks in engaging the world via Ne.
The Child is simplistic compared to the first two functions. In regards to situation #1 (our body), it is easy for an INTP to both underemphasize or overemphasize the body’s signals. Ignoring our body often leads to the “disembodied mind” syndrome SO common to INTPs – we can easily run our bodies into the ground by treating them as superfluous appendages that get in the way of our intuition and thinking processes. On the other hand, we can also become suddenly too locked onto our bodies’ signals and essentially become hypochondriacs about each little pain and twinge and discomfort, wondering what dreadful sign those signals are foretelling… whereas aches and pains are quite common to people who are more used to examining their body signals.
In regards to Situation #2, INTPs have a tendency to use our internal sense of “what is” – the map we’ve grown accustomed to – to avoid using our Ne any longer and take risks that might force us to change the conclusions we’ve drawn with Ti. So we symbolically “hole up like a child” in the back corner of our internal closet and refuse to come out, indulging instead in our little fantasy world where everything works just like we’ve supposed it does.
(In conclusion, TiNe needs to parent the child, not let the child parent her!)
Si can be developed but only when it is subjected to good TiNe. It records our past so that we have something stable to draw from, and it provides input about the condition of our bodies, reminding us of our humanity and that our mind/thinking *is* impacted by our physical condition. So taking care of ourselves helps us function better.
4. Anima/Animus (opposite sex)
Males have an anima (female archetypal counterpart) which represents the feminine side of the man. Females have an animus (male archetypal counterpart). It generally means at best one's aspirational side or at worst one's negative projections.
In the case of INTP, the dreaded Extroverted Feeling function acts as the anima/animus. There is a love-hate battle going on between expressions of emotion, as well as expressions of commitment/relational responsibilities. This is the same love/hate pull that drives early attraction between individuals (“falling in love” – we are drawn to the “mysterious other”).
So INTPs either tend to glorify those who show Fe (seeing it as an ideal for us to aspire to) or else label the "monster" that can be blamed for the host of human evils.
INTPs might love it at first when someone showers emotion on us and gives us the commitment we need to feel secure; but other times we despise it, feeling like we need to shower ourselves afterwards to get clean again or even cut loose ties altogether to retain the objectivity of Ti. Fe is mysterious and potentially deadly, and perhaps that is the power of its enticement.
INTPs can consciously learn to develop Fe – it is the judging function that should interfere least with Ti when expressed. (Ti can determine principles, Fe gives the INTP a social voice with which to speak those derived principles. It makes the INTP effective in society and grounded.)