In the early years, school favours Si's ability to accurately store and remember facts. SJ types also like to conform to expectations, so generally do well at this stage. As learning becomes more abstract and theoretical, Ne and Ni come into their own, for their ability to see the big picture and quickly grasp concepts and understand new ideas.
I read somewhere that NP types are more likely to score highly on tests for giftedness and aptitude but NJ types tend to do better academically, as they are good at focusing on the requirements of an assignment or exam. NP types are more likely to get distracted, go off on tangents or lose interest, which cancels out their initial advantage.
At higher levels of education, Introverts tend to do better at exams as they are find it easier than E's to study and read for long periods of time.
The upshot of this is that, all else being equal, INTJs and INFJs may have an advantage over other types in the education system, particularly at higher levels. I think it was Isabel Briggs-Myers herself who wrote that INFJs may actually do better at school and college than INTJs, as they have a strong need to please the teacher, or may be more naturally gifted with language. INTJs independent nature may work against them at times, as they do not have the same desire to please. Also they do not suffer fools gladly - an incompetent teacher may bring out the worst in them. Further, an INTJ who sees little value in a subject will not bother to exert themselves, whereas an INFJ may do the opposite if they like the teacher.
This certainly sits well with my own experiences. I did extremely well at both school and university, despite sometimes feeling less intelligent than my many INTP and INTJ friends. Although they were able to grasp complex theory more rapidly than I could, and seemed to have a deeper understanding of many subjects, they often couldn't be bothered to apply themselves to the tedium of coursework and exam study. It was like they already "knew" the stuff to their own satisfaction, so saw little need to prove this in writing.