IV. Foundations of Typology
The purpose of this short essay is to outline in detail how each of the elements of typology functions, and how they relate to the big picture of type.
Before we proceed to our definitions, a very short exposition of the subject is desirable. Carl Jung has regarded his inquiry into Kant and Schopenhauer as the most intellectually challenging endeavor he has embarked on. It is from the aforementioned Kant that he has derived the idea concerning the antithesis of Feeling and Thinking. Or dispassionate contemplation and endorsement of the passions. This idea has been championed by Schopenhauer as well. The same Schopenhauer has maintained that all creatures tend to be driven by a blind amorphous force that they do not understand which primarily manifests in a form of abrupt impulses. This he calls the Will. Schopenhauer recommends pursuit of fine arts and intellectual endeavors to tame this force. The loftier the person, the less impulsive he shall be and therefore less influenced by the Will. However, Schopenhauer also clearly argues that the Will is the essence of our being. The pure impulsive force is what drives us at the core. When we do away with the will, we will cease to exist and nothing shall be left of us but the pure intellect. We will be a weight-less mirror of the world. Clearly, this is tantamount to non-existence.
On these grounds, granted that Schopenhauer has arrived at the truth, that there is an antithesis between the intellect and impulse. By virtue of this, we notice an antithesis between Introversion and Extroversion, Intuition and Sensation, and Thinking and Feeling. Very controversially, many, since Jung have argued that Feeling is a rational function. For this reason one may be persuaded to classify it among the intellectual faculties. However, Feeling is clearly antithetical with Thinking in the Kantian-Schopenhauerian philosophy. Schopenhauer has made many explicit references concerning the connection of feeling and impulse to promote his assertion that Feeling is indeed part of the Will. This connection seems very intuitive also, as every conscious sensation leads to an emotive response. We often use the terms of ‘I felt’ and ‘I sensed’ in an interchangeable fashion. For example, if one were to say I felt cold today or I sensed coldness we would be led to infer that these are merely two different ways of saying the same thing. One is forced to ask to what degree Feeling is a rational function. Feeling clearly tell us whether things are agreeable to us or they are not. Yet it does not tell us what they are. Thus Feeling without the proper accommodation of Thinking will either feel in harmony with the general sentiment or in disharmony, will not be able to clearly identify what the source of harmony or disharmony is. This is the case because Thinking is what shows evinces structure in all things, it is concerned with objective laws of reasoning. This is our only instrument with regards discovering what thing are. Thus, if one is to use Feeling without using Thinking, one would not have a clear-cut notion of what his sentiments are aimed at, he merely would sense the sentiments without understanding their aim or their source.
Thinking provides the logical structure for all things and is concerned with the impersonal analysis of reality. Because Feeling in itself lacks structure, and yields only the sentiment of agreement or disagreement, it can be regarded as rational to a very limited degree. It clearly has more in common with Thinking rather than with the perceiving functions as it is a conscious cognitive faculty, yet it is a mistake to think Feeling to be nearly as rational as Thinking. In other words, if all faculties were assessed on a scale of 1 and 10, 1 being least rational or pure unconscious perception and 10 being rigorous logical scrutiny, Feeling likely would receive the rating of a 6
In summary, it should be stated that the Introverted type, the Intuitive and the Thinking type are energized primarily through contemplation. The Extroverted type, Sensing and Feeling primarily through furtherance of passion. Very often through action. We hold for this to be true due to our earlier distinction between the intellect and impulse. Clearly impulse is to be associated with passion and action and the intellect with contemplation. As a matter of truism, it appears to be that Schopenhauer was correct to maintain that intellectual endeavors rob us of the Will. From this it could be inferred that they divest us of the physical energy. Thus all physical energy must necessarily be associated with the latter group of types and not the former. One shall ask then, how could there be an Intuitive type, a Thinking type or an Introverted type.
They must altogether be lifeless. This would be the case if they were a pure type. Such a thing is indeed impossible. By virtue of the Hegelian master-slave dialect, which we shall further explore in inquiries to follow, the Introverted type could be recognized as the type that has subjugated the extroverted elements of himself to serve the will of the introverted. Or in other words, pure contemplation does not lead to energy on its own right, but the introvert is energized through contemplation because the energy of extroversion is accessed at the behest of the introverted mindset. Thus, as a result of this, the introvert feels a reaction akin to influx of physical energy as a result of contemplation. However, genuine interaction with the external environment is necessary in order to retain faculties associated with influx of physical energy. For this reason the introvert cannot sustain his physical well being solely by virtue of contemplation. Genuine extroversion is necessary. This brings us back to an earlier point concerning the interdependence of functions. As Jung has mentioned, no function can be eliminated but could only be severely distorted, as each one is an integral faculty of the psychic economy.
Accordingly, we have first established that Introversion cannot be wholly autonomous from Extroversion. Vice versa has been established in the earlier section of this chapter. As David Hume has famously argued that it is the passions that have the final say over our actions and not the intellect. Hence, Thinking cannot be autonomous without Feeling. To further elaborate on this matter, the reason why we are able to be satisfied with our thinking is because we are able to generate an agreeable feeling in relation to cogent thinking. In other words, when a logician sees a statement that he regards as coherent, he generates a positive emotive sentiment, and for this reason he is able to find the motivation to embrace the idea that he regards as plausible. When he sees an incoherent statement, he associates a negative emotional reaction with such a statement and therefore finds the motivation to reject it. If our thinking was not accommodated by such an aforementioned feeling, our impersonal reasoning would remain wholly independent of us. It would be meaningless in colloquial terms, we would have no motivation to embrace or reject a proposition on the grounds of cogency or lack thereof. In short, the reason why we regard cogency as desirable is not one of purely a matter of intellectual notion, but also because there is a feeling associated with a notion we have reasons to believe is cogent. Feeling is not independent from Thinking because in order to make sound value judgments one must have at least the most superficial idea possible of the subject matter that the value judgments are passed on. Intuition is not independent of Sensation because in order for us to conceive ideas in imagination, they must first be inspired by something that has been observed in the concrete world. Sensation is not independent of Intuition because in order for one to properly record impressions derived from sense data, the intellect must be engaged to a certain degree.
1)Pure typology: Study of the unconscious tendencies within the psyche of the individual. This is to be placed within the realm of philosophy of mind.
2)Applied typology: Study of how the type of the individual manifests through personality. This is a question of psychology. How types interplay with each other, from the standpoint of applied typology is a question of sociology. When handling matters of applied typology it is important to consider the cultural factors environing the given type. As well as the psychological factors of the individual who inhabits the type. Applied typology is best performed through carefully controlled empirical studies. This is the case because applied typology is concerned with how our unconscious cognitive predispositions influence us to behave in our current environment. For this reason the circumstances external to the psyche are crucial. Only careful observations of such circumstances could lead to accurate results, and such observations could only be conducted in carefully controlled empirical studies. David Keirsey’s please Understand Me and Dr.Avilla’s Love Types represent the work in applied typology.
3) Positive energy-This term need not presuppose any supernatural phenomena. It is simply synonymous with positive emotion which encourages the individual to carry on with the endeavor he is currently preoccupied with. A cognitive faculty is regarded as our type when positive energy is evoked as a result of its utilization.
4)Negative energy-Negative emotion which discourages the individual from carrying on with the task he is preoccupied with. When we rely on a function that is antithetical to our type, negative energy ensues.
5)Type-An unconscious tendency towards a certain way of thinking. It is biologically conditioned to a greater degree than it is conditioned through interaction with the external world. Hence, the input of nature is more prominent than that of nurture. One’s prominent type is to be associated with habits of mind that he tends to derive most positive psychological energy from.
6)Personality-The overall qualities of the individual. A type may influence one’s personality, though only to a very limited degree, as factors of psychology and sociology in many cases tend to be more prominent. For example, an introvert who chose to enter politics may develop personality traits that we may regard as outgoing, or assertive, despite that he is naturally energized more by silent contemplation rather than interaction with the external world.
7)Extroversion: An unconscious tendency to accumulate energy through interaction with the external world. Extroverted Type tends to be energized through interaction with the external world. Because of such an intense focus on the external world, the extroversion tends to derive its agenda from the external world.
8)Extrovert-One who is focused more on the external world. A person who is primarily concerned with interaction with the external world. (Applied typology/psychology).
9)Introversion-An unconscious tendency to accumulate energy through interaction with the inner world. Interaction with the inner world equates lack of interaction with the external world. It need not involve contemplation of profound ideas. Because of the intense focus on the internal world, introversion tends to derive its agenda through internal scrutiny of the external world, rather than from the external world directly. In applied typology we may adduce that because the introvert is focused on the inner life to a much more intense degree than he is focused on the outer life, he tends to define the external world by his own internal standards. Conversely, the Extrovert tends to define himself by his external environment. This idea has been established by Jung in the Psychological Types and it has been popularized by Lenor Thomson.
10)Introvert-A person primarily concerned with interaction with the inner world. (Applied typology/psychology)
11)Perception-Collection of information through interplay with the external environment.
12)Introverted Perception-Relation to the environment in terms of the agenda of the subject. Perceptions are filtered through the scope of the Introvert.
13)Introverted Intuition- Faculty of abstract perception, collection of information. Information is collected in terms of how it relates to the subject. The environment is perceived in terms of its relevance to the perceiver. Hence, only small portions of the environment are deemed important. Abstract perception is synonymous with imagination. Therefore the external environment is not only distorted by the natural perceptions of the subject, but also due to the very active imagination of the perceiver.
14)Introverted Sensation-Faculty of concrete perception. Primarily concerned with collecting information about the physical environment. Concrete observations are distorted because of the factor of subjectivity of perception.
15)Extroverted Perception-Relation of the subject to the external environment in terms of the external agenda. The subject adapts to the external environment. The external environment is perceived directly because the subject tends to interfere little with the direct interaction with the external environment.
16)Extroverted Intuition-Faculty of abstract perception and direct interaction with the external environment. This cognitive tendency leads one to live his life out directly in the external world. Unlike Introverted Intuition, Extroverted imagination tends to be applicable to the external world.
17)Extroverted Sensation-Faculty of concrete perception and interaction with the external world.
19)Extroverted Judgment-Conscious scrutiny by the externally derived methodology. Judgment is not filtered through the internal agenda.
20)Introverted Judgment-Conscious scrutiny through an internally derived standard. A completely internally derived standard is impossible because judgment necessarily deals with the material that could be judged which derives from the external environment, however in this case, unlike the Extroverted Judgment, the Introvert incepts the external environment through his internal scope.
21) Introverted Thinking-Conscious scrutiny of impersonal variables through impersonal methodology by virtue of an internal agenda.(Logic)
22)Introverted Feeling- Conscious scrutiny of an interpersonal variables through an internally grounded interpersonal agenda.
23)Extroverted Thinking- Conscious scrutiny of impersonal variables through externally grounded impersonal agenda of reasoning. (Logic)
24)Extroverted Feeling- Conscious scrutiny of interpersonal variables through an externally grounded interpersonal agenda. (Value judgment)
25) Objective 1: In tune with the external object. Not in relation with the internal cognitive process concerning the matter. Extroversion is an example of such a phenomenon.
26)Objective 2: Not influenced by one’s interpersonal judgment. Able to attain a perspective devoid of prejudice.
27)Hegelian Master slave dialect- This definition is to be used strictly in the typological context and not to the full extent in relevance to the Hegelian philosophy. This phenomenon concerns the notion of superior functions subordinating those lower in rank. For example, if one is a dominant Thinking type, their Feeling faculties will be used to serve the purpose of the Thinking faculty by virtue of the Hegelian master slave dialect.
28) Temperament- An aggregate of types or our individual unconscious tendencies. As aforementioned, no function is completely autonomous and we use all of them at all times. Type is defined as the cognitive tendency that generates the most positive energy. Temperament is virtually a list of functions starting with those that generate the most positive energy and finishing with those that generate the least positive energy, or generate the most negative energy.
We have 4 pairs of antithetical faculties. A) Extroversion and Introversion. B)Thinking and Feeling. C)Intuition and Sensation. D)Judgment and perception.
II. Essence of Temperament
“The conscious psyche is an apparatus for adaptation and orientation, and consists of a number of different psychic functions. Among these we can distinguish four basic ones: sensation, thinking, feeling, intuition….So far as my experience goes, these four basic functions seem to me sufficient to express and represent the various modes of conscious orientation. For complete orientation all four functions should contribute equally: thinking should facilitate cognition and judgment, feeling should tell us how and to what extent a thing is important or unimportant to us, sensation should convey concrete reality to us through seeing, hearing, tasting, etc. and intuition should enable us to divine the hidden possibilities in the background, since these too belong to the complete picture of a given situation. In reality, however, these basic functions are seldom or never uniformly differentiated and equaled at our disposal. As a rule one or the other function occupies the foreground, while the rest remain undifferentiated in the background.” Psychological Types. P 518
As has been mentioned in chapter one, all functions contradict one another, as well as the attitudes. To recapitulate, Thinking and Feeling contradict one another because they both strive to make a decision, yet the former insists on dispassionate contemplation of the situation, yet the latter on personal involvement. Intuition and Sensation contradict one another because the former insists on abstract contemplation of ideas and the latter insists on mere attunement with the concrete phenomena observed. Close affinity with Sensation inadvertently eclipses Intuition because in order to effectively contemplate ideas, one must manipulate many images. This activity is stultified by Sensation because it insists on the focus on one particular object. Extroversion and Introversion are antithetical to each other because the latter insists on internal cognitive processing of the external world, whilst the former insists on withholding contemplation in order to directly interact with the external world. Judgment and Perception are antithetical to each other because the former insists on analysis of the previously perceived ideas which puts perception on hold, yet perception insists on collection of ideas about the external world, which in effect insists on postponement of judgment because judgment interferes with the influx of new perceptions. Temperament consists in first of all the presence of these four antithetical groups and secondly in the prevalence of one over the other. One should ask again, what reasons does one have to believe in the existence of those four groups. Clearly, everyone Intuits, everyone experiences Sensations, everyone reasons dispassionately and everyone makes value judgments. These four dichotomies are indeed crude, but on a superficial level they depict how the human mind tends to work. They are crude in the respect that they only inform us of the basic procedures within the human mind, we must inquire further into philosophy of mind and neuroscience for more profound insight. It is unlikely that any discovery in neuroscience shall refute the existence of these four dichotomies because they depict the very basic and foundational features of our mind. Clearly, however, those discoveries will endow us with more profound insight with respect to these features. With respect to our second question, we ask, why must there be a primacy of one faculty over the other? The answer is, because the two entities involved in each dichotomy are antithetical and therefore both strive for control in our psyche, one must prevail over the other in order to attain a clear sense of direction in our thought. The fact that almost all individuals are able to function properly in their thought and action shows that this occurrence has taken place.
III. On Utility of Typology
It is clear, however, that it is impossible for one to inquire into pure typology without having crossed the territory of applied typology. This is the case because in order for us to properly understand the unconscious tendencies of thought we must first observe human behavior of individuals engaging in thought. For most sound understanding of tendencies of thought possible, we would be well advised to study the works of literature, philosophy, the sciences and the arts of individuals we choose to observe rather than their behavior during interaction with the external world. This is the case because such observations allow for us to have a more clear view of the thought process of these individuals. Their interaction with the external world obfuscates this for the following reasons, the external world may impose sanctions on them which force them to behave in a fashion different from that of their natural predilections, they may be unaware of their natural predilections and the external behavior may not be indicative enough of how one thinks. This is the case because at superficial social interactions for example, or many work-related situations, individuals are not given the opportunity or the inspiration to fully express their thoughts. When we deal with the works of these individuals in intellectual endeavors, they are given ample opportunity and inspiration to do so. Moreover, even if they happen to be confused about what their natural predilections are, they are easier to be discovered in such works because more of their reasoning process is displayed in such situations rather than in those where they have little opportunity or inspiration to present us with their thoughts. In our study of temperaments we have discovered that many of the discussed faculties of type are antithetical, and in effect some inevitably will be prevalent over others. We also know that all functions are utilized as Jung stated, they are indispensable factors of our psychic economy. Prevalence of one function over the other means that one is simply utilized more than the other. As Jung has stated, for ‘complete orientation’ it is desirable to soundly use all functions. The use of one function precludes the use of the other, which poses a certain hindrance to this task. Such a dilemma is to be resolved as follows. The prevalent functions shall be the most influential in one’s psyche, however, the less influential functions, after having been developed shall be regarded as utilities to be embraced at the behest of the prevalent faculties.
It is certainly unrewarding to devote our study of typology chiefly to applied typology, or merely to the tasks of solving theoretical problems of the subject. However, despite that this present inquiry is chiefly concerned with the theoretical aspect of typology, it is very much applicable to our practical concerns. It is important however to make sure that our knowledge of theoretical typology is sound, otherwise we may encounter errors in practical applications of our ideas. Temperament, tends to inform us of our true inner faculties and how they could be best utilized. Accurate knowledge of this requires first of all an inquiry into our cognitive predispositions. How such predispositions manifest in the external world is a question of psychology and sociology and requires carefully controlled studies. For this reason I have omitted many practical questions of typology such as, what is the most fitting romantic type for the given type in question? Or what type is most adept at this or that particular job? Or more pertinently, how does a type tend to act whilst being psychologically sound or unsound? These questions can be answered in entirety, granted that these questions are not posed in an open-ended fashion, but specifically in relation to a certain context. Thus human temperament is to be studied to the end of better understanding our natural predispositions and in effect discovering ways to be true to ourselves and better interact with the external world. As the Jungian analysis of human thought has evinced to us, the problem of type sheds light in regard to many problems concerning human nature and to what extent knowledge of this phenomenon can ameliorate our interactions with the external world and ourselves.