Abuse is common, can be subtle, hidden as well as overt and open. For instance my brother emotionally blackmails me, he thinks its normal but this is abuse too. Yes bullying is abuse and this translates in the power struggles, politics and hierarchy in business. The business structure tends to have a school mentality and this is further manifest in the competitive nature that seems to be crucial in the manifestation of doing anything to achieve, in turn abusing powers and people. A snowball effect in any situation leads to a poor coping mechanism that sees stress increase as would anxieties from undesirable experiences, discrimination, harassment is abuse etcSo...it's hard to know where to start here. Let's see...genetics or environment? I also think both contribute. I haven't been through anything that would normally be called abuse, but as others have described many other things can affect people. Especially children. Something that isn't a big deal on its own, like being teased at school, can be much more harmful if it becomes a long-standing pattern, or if a child is ridiculed or ostracized by most peers (s)he meets and accepted by few or none. Also, some things that seem okay on the surface feel very different when you are actually living them (such as Carnallace's example about her parents).
You mean alpha, beta and omega style, dominance vs submission and in-between as survival strategies. The pack or herd mentalities to the lone wolfs and discarded misfits.I do believe people naturally vary in temperament, and you see this throughout the animal kingdom. Within the same species, some animals can be bold and inclined to take risks, and some are more cautious and sensitive. Neither is "better"; they can both be advantages in a certain environment. When I took an ecology course, they illustrated this with rabbits as an example. Some rabbits are more adventurous in seeking food and less reactive to sudden noises or movements. Others are more cautious, avoiding risky situations, not venturing as far, and being quick to dash away at an unfamiliar sight or sound. The bolder rabbits are more likely to survive when food is scarce, since they're willing to take the risk to seek new sources of it. The more cautious rabbits are more likely to survive when a lot of predators are around, since their behaviour makes them less likely to get eaten. Since these factors are always changing, a variety of temperaments is often required for a species to survive. In addition, with social species that live in groups, different members can serve different functions. So, our ancestors may have had the best chances of survival when they lived in groups with some adventurous members willing to seek new opportunities, and some sensitive members who could alert others to possible threats. Other variations in personality could have evolved for similar reasons.
Very interesting, then the metabolism would change according to the genome of predecessors. Greater susceptibility to disease states as the bodies genetic code has been altered towards the state of the parent experiencing trauma or low level effects on their well being.That video was very interesting, and considering what I said above epigenetic changes make sense. If a pregnant woman is feeling stressed, (she may be in a threatening environment, and in the past an anxiety-prone, reactive temperament would have given her baby the best chance of survival in that case. I've read of a different study that showed a link between a woman's food intake and obesity risk: people are more likely to become obese if their mothers didn't consume enough food consistently during their pregnancies. Low food intake causes the mother's body to "think" food is scarce. If food is scarce, her baby would have a better chance of surviving if its body burned less calories, so changes in gene expression occur to bring this about and as a result these babies grow up to be more susceptible to weight gain. Similar thing with stress during pregnancy and anxiety-prone offspring. Interesting about the effect lasting for two or three generations: my paternal grandparents went through some extreme stress during the war, before they had children, and several people on that side have mental health issues.
I'm of the belief that this is partially generated by the health of the endocrine system. That when the adrenal and thyroid production is blocked through environmental agents then this manufactures the states that are often found. Then a child can be socially anxious early on once the awareness is there to have thought perception I'd say. This would then feed the state as a confirmation and to unravel this state just like a phobia would be learning the trigger points, and trying to establish a proper nutritional and emotional balance to accommodate the deficit of certain hormonal and genetic markers? I dunno am waffling.I think there's a difference between reactivity to new situations and social anxiety though. Social anxiety is fear over what others may think of you. This means it requires an awareness that others are forming impressions of you. I don't believe animals or infants have this. I think inborn temperament can heighten one's risk of developing it by making others' negative reactions feel more painful, and/or making you notice them more, and/or causing you to behave in a way that makes them more likely. This is probably what happened with me.
Then is shyness changeable, in that respect will I go through life shy or can I learn to be un-shy. And in a way treating adults like children when they are adults is a form of abuse, invalidation of the age appropriate mental psyche. And this happens in families and schools a lot where the parent or teacher places value according to what station of experience or there lack of experience there is. As an adult outgrows this the tendency for the parent to continue to pander to rather than treat their child as human being equally as a friend than their child is causative to stress and down regulation of performance.Epigenetics illustrates that genetics and environment interact. Not only does environment affect gene expression with epigenetic changes, but inborn genetic temperament affects how people respond to you and how you experience life. As a child, my shyness and anxiety often lead to adults sometimes patronizing me, treating me as if I were younger than I really was, assuming I didn't understand things that other children understood (even though I was developmentally ahead of them in some ways), and sometimes becoming frustrated and disgusted with me. The other kids sometimes tried to 'mother' me as well during my first years in school, then often rejected me when I was older (junior high and up), thinking I was strange or "psycho" because I was so withdrawn. Almost always, people either had some kind of negative impression of me or didn't notice me at all. These things really affected my confidence and self-concept. I suspect culture has something to do with these reactions. Assertiveness and sociability seem to be valued quite a bit in Canada and the States, and people with these traits are often preferred over quieter personalities.
Satisfying reading your thoughts thanks.It doesn't really make sense to say things like "Disorder x is 80% genetic" or "Personality trait 3 appears 1/3 genetic". Yet I see this all the time in everything from internet articles to my neuroscience textbook. People talk as if biological, psychological and social factors can be divided like slices of pie. They can't clearly be separated because they influence each other.
Is there anyway to strengthen the the genetic legacy passed on to children to be less heightened to the artifact of having more pointless attributes. Like shyness, while this is defensive in nature, it is unnecessary in the technological age where survival while necessary is of itself a different manifestation than it was even 50 years ago.
I certainly want my children to have the best start and to avoid going through the surreal life I experienced thanks to being shy and stressed so much. Its a real moot point really, so much opportunity falls by the way side from being shy that it begs the question it is something I want gone, gone yesterday.