Feeling and thinking are equally important. I have a theory which says that both thinking and feeling will lead to the same right conclusion when applied correctly and in a mature manner.
The misconception about the 'feeling people' ( the irrational reactions) stem from the impulse decision making based on an emotion. I think that feelers are very well aware of this impulse response (characterized as 'irrational feeling') and they work to balance/overcome/suppress it in their own way. This misconception is not seen as much with thinkers because the basic block of thought (which is natural to thinkers) can usually be expressed with words. So thinkers usually use their words to respond - which, to you and I, appear as 'reasons'.
This only means that our vocabulary isn't yet evolved enough to be of use to feelers. So they fall back on the closest lexicon that can capture their feelings - "I don't like it" or "I hate him".
I think this is true because if you give feelers enough time, 1-2 weeks where the can busy themselves with other tasks and let the subconscious figure it out - they will usually be able to give you a very exact reason for what was happening that day.
But OP's main notion of critical thought still applies - what is described above are tools to do it.
A feeler's reaction to a stimuli and it's critical thought is further complicated by the resulting emotions - anger, jealousy, hurt, etc. To a thinker, these emotions are just consequences. He is able to step back from the anger he is emoting and able to use his tool of thinking to examine the situation objectively. A feeler is disadvantaged because the tools that he uses to examine the situation are [i] also of the (feeling) kind! So before he can be critical about the situation, he first needs to learn how to separate these emotions from the feelings that were the result of the impulse response.
Then there are other factors to take into account like maturity.
Of course this is all anecdotal, I'm a thinker through and through. I don't know how to use the tools of feelings, I can only experience them as emotions.