According to some of the definitions of Introverted Thinking, it seems as though this function can be described as taking a holistic, right-brained approach to observing and understanding the variables, causality, and inner-mechanics of an idea or situation. This information is generally too specific to subjective experience and too ethereal for most Extraverted Thinking to understand.
The aspects of this general definition which seems to illuminate a connection between this function and most notions of Critical Thinking would be in how Critical Thinking is, much like Introverted Thinking contrasted to Extraverted Thinking, involved in understanding the logical consistency inherent in the mechanics of an argument, idea or any system of principles which rely on self-consistency in order to function reliably. Critical thinking, unlike problem-solving, is less directed towards the application of ideas to a conflicting situation, and more concerned with the overall logical cogency of an intellectual construct, regardless of the construct's intentions towards the external. Furthermore, in order to use critical thinking effectively, one needs to have an understanding of a "situation's many variables", in order to judge that the "larger picture" is being sustained by the smaller components acting in synchronicity with one another, regardless of one's ability to interpret the rules from more linear processes