Like most people, the topics I share are typically dependent upon the 'vibe' that I get with the other person. Just as with the "how was your weekend?" example above, I get a feel for what sort of information can be shared.
A person's role in my life doesn't usually matter. For example, I have some coworkers who I don't 'hang out' with, but I feel comfortable sharing information with them nonetheless; others, much less so. I was thoroughly confused when one coworker asked me questions about my sex life, but I freely shared that information with another without batting an eye.
I don't lie about traits such as my religious or political beliefs, but I won't often make them known if doing so will cause disharmony in a group setting. I'll discuss politics and religion in general terms, though.
When I'm giving speeches or lectures--especially motivational speeches and the like--I usually divulge tons of personal information as it relates to the topics at hand. Some of my public speeches have detailed my struggles with depression, my sense of and search for identity, and my failed relationships.
Not usually. There are certain people with whom I've established mutual trust within a few hours of meeting them (one of which quickly became my best friend), and there are many others who I've known for years and don't know a whole lot about me.Also, is time a factor in casually revealing what you consider private information to people, i.e. you still don't know them very well but you've been around them several times?
In casual conversation where there are people who don't give me that trustworthy vibe, I don't usually share anything that would be divisive, and I often find that getting too personal doesn't add to the conversation. Many such conversations are meant to be surface-level, so, well, I'm more surface-level in disclosing my information, too. However, if any person in the group happens to bring up an issue that they're having in some area--such as relationships--I'll typically disclose whatever information I think would help them out.
In a one-on-one setting or a very close group setting with people who give me that particular vibe, my casual conversation tends to take more personal overtones. Everything you've listed is on the table for conversation, and there's little that I won't discuss. In fact, I can't think of many examples of things I won't discuss in such a setting. Maybe fetishes and bodily functions.. ? I'm also very sensitive when it comes to disclosing others' information.