I think there are definitely strong corollaries, especially with NPs. I generally have impulsive long term goals in that in the moment I try and envision as elaborate a plan or scheme as I can muster. I usually cycle a couple of those in the short term until I get sort of a vague outline of what it is I'm interested in. Once I have that I can indulge more full heartedly without guilt on short term pleasures.
I think utilizing your long term planning strategies has to take in to account your temperament. I don't think a large majority of Ps can try and encounter questions like that with the certainty, precision, drive, and adherence that Js can. The self knowledge comes in knowing just how your energy is best invested. My dad and sister INTJ and ISFJ respectively are the kings of that kind of planning, they are notorious in my family for being stingy when it comes to their plans and always having something long and short term they're striving towards. I think it has tie ins with how you reference and recall things. I hate the way my sister thinks of things. It's very evident that her mind works in an objective, check point fashion. She needs the constant verification that what she is doing is "right," she really has trouble with accepting the fact that she can act when there is a large amount of uncertainty.
My dad is similar to an extent but he is much more apt to deal with that internally based on his 'systems' and then proceed to outlining and taking action. When he's in the process of working he likes to have a tightly defined area and attack it in little compartmentalized bits. He is very hard to sway if he sees that he is making consistent progress and is achieving notable results.
What I've realized over the years is that I preform much better and more consistently when I leave myself time to experiment a bit so I can see the scope of something. I know if I hit a particular monotonous snag I will disengage pretty quickly and my output will slow significantly. So I try to get enough coverage to the point where I can easily switch off and recuperate my energy and then engage again if I see it is worthwhile. I always need to have multiple possibilities because I know no matter how much I try, how invested I am, and how serious I am, that I will in the short term always seek greener pastures. So I try and build a plan that takes that into account. It's most certainly not 5 years. More like a series of 1 year plans that leaves me room to fall back on and select a course of action I can really get involved in.