As black, I play 1...c6, 2...d5 for almost everything (for 1.d4, I play 1...d5, 2...c6).
This almost always transposes into a Caro-Kann or a Slav.
1) I generally aim to lock up the center till I finish development. There are some notable exceptions, where I can actually take initiative or have to fend off rather nasty attacks on my king. One variation leads to an exchange of Queens very early in the game, where I end up loosing castling but have a more central king in a near end-game situation.
2a) Once developed (castled king side), start a minority attack on the queen-side, while trading down pieces and creating pawn weaknesses.
2b) Once developed (castled king side or queen side), launch an attack to win decisive material or a mate on the king side. Usually requires white to play passively, launch a premature attack, or just make a tactical blunder.
As white, unless black gives me the ideal center (which your opening would), I play 1. d6 2. c6. If I have the opportunity, I will play 1.d6 2.e6 instead.
After 1...d5, this is the Queen's Gambit. Most other black responses I've seen transposes later on the a version of Queen's Gambit declined (slav or semi-slav usually).
I had stock responses for annoyances like the Benko Gambit, and Albin Counter-Gambit also (though I face them so little, I have forgotten them).
1) The main plan is to control the center, take-up space and limit black's options, till (s)he is forced to make a blunder, or (s)he gives me enough tempo to either get a second queen or catch the king in a vice grip.
2) If black manges to destroy my center (which right now seems much easier than I would have anticipated) I have a Q-B-B-N-N combo. in store to try to mate the king. As the saying goes "wang the h-pawn, trade off the bishop, and mate the sucker"